SUCCINIC ACID (butandi-acid, ethane - 1,2 - dicarboxylic acid) — dicarboxylic acid, HOOC(CH2)2COOH, the major product and substrate of a cycle of tricarboxylic acids, the universal intermediate metabolite which is formed in the course of oxidation and interconversion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in living cell. Nek-ry connections Ya. to. apply as pharmaceuticals. Anion Ya. to. is called succinate, salts and ethers Ya. to. — succinates. As in fiziol. conditions I. to. has an appearance of anion, the term «succinate» is often used as a synonym of the term «succinic acid».
In cells I. to. plays a role of power substrate. Being oxidized under the influence of a suktsinatdegidrogena-za (see), succinic acid, hl. obr. in shape suktsinil-KOA (active succinate), it is used in various biosynthetic reactions; so, being condensed with glycine, she participates in biosynthesis of nek-ry fatty acids (see) and porphyrines (see) . I. to. is one of substrates of a gluconeogenesis (see Glucose).
Succinic acid and its derivatives (anhydride, amides, salts, etc.) use for receiving pharmaceuticals, insecticides, plastic, polyester resinss, polykernels-nykh of aromatic hydrocarbons, dyes.
Free I. to. in small amounts it is found in brown coal, pitches and amber. In significant amounts it contains in unripe berries, juice of sugar beet, a sugarcane and turnip, in a rhubarb, a lucerne, etc. The person has a contents I. to. in a blood plasma normal averages 0,5 zhg/100 ml.
Pier. the weight (weight) amber to - you is equal to 118,09. Crystals I. to. have an appearance of colourless monoklinny prisms. I. to. a rastvorima in water, alcohol, ether, acetone and not a rastvorima in benzene, chloroform, perchloromethane; ^0ПЛ1850, at a temperature of 235 ° from a molecule Ya. to. the water molecule therefore cyclic succinic anhydride is formed is chipped off. I. to. reacts with ammonia and am*ina with formation of a cyclic suktsinimid and its replaced analogs. In the industry I. to. receive hl. obr. hydrogenation of maleic anhydride or fumaric acid (see).
Quantitative definition I. to. in biol. objects it is carried out by means of colorimetric, manometrical and enzymatic methods. Most often apply the method based on oxidation I. to. to fumaric to - you in the presence of a succinatedehydrogenase (KF
18.104.22.168) during the use as artificial electron sink of the painted ferricyanide of potassium. The decrease of the ferricyanide turning into colourless ferrocyanide is registered spektrofotometrichesk at the wavelength of 420 nanometers (see Dehydrogenases).
I. to., found in living tissues, is a product of the fifth reaction and substrate of the sixth reaction of a cycle tricarboxylic to - t (see. Tricarboxylic acids cycle). It is formed from suktsinil-KOA under the influence of a succinatethiokinase (KF 22.214.171.124; 126.96.36.199). In extreme states accumulation I. to. in an organism can occur at the expense of the address of final stages of a cycle. Additional source I. to. in fabrics the lipolysis (see the Lipometabolism), in process to-rogo is at oxidation fat to - the t with an odd number of carbon atoms in a carbon chain is synthesized suktsinil-KOA. In nervous tissue the so-called ^-aminobutiratny way, or 7 ~ the aminobutiratny shunt (GAMK-shunt), in the course to-rogo I functions. to. it is formed of the amber polualde-guide.
At plants and microorganisms I. to. it is produced in the course of a gli-oksilatny cycle during the splitting isolemon to - you by isocitratelyase (KF 188.8.131.52) and used for the biosynthetic purposes. Nek-ry microorganisms in process suktsi-nat-propionatnogo fermentations (see Fermentation) have an accumulation I. to. At microorganisms — strict anaerobe bacterias recovery fumaric to - you to I. to., catalyzed by fumaratereductase (succinate dehydrogenase; KF 184.108.40.206), is the only process providing synthesis of ATP by the phosphorylation (see) interfaced to electron transfer. Education I. to. at nek-ry microorganisms occurs also at metabolism of arginine (see) and polyamine of a putrestsin (see Rotting, Ptomaines).
In the photoactivated membrane systems at photosynthesizing bacteria reaction of dehydrogenation I is carried out. to. to fumaric to - you interfaced to recovery OVER. In mitochondrions in anaerobic conditions during the entering into the ATP system there is also a recovery OVER succinate (a so-called leakage flow of electrons).
It is revealed that amber to - that and its salts have adaptogenny ability and have antigi-poksichesky, antistress and neurotropic effect, normalize energy and plastic metabolism and the general fiziol. condition of an organism. I. to. strengthens biochemical and fiziol. recovery processes in various bodies in the conditions of pathology and an intensive exercise stress, are eliminated by a metabolic acidosis (see). In an organism action I. to. is implemented through the regulatory centers — a hypothalamus (see) and adrenal glands (see).
Use I is perspective. to. with the therapeutic purpose at astenisation of an organism and its use in combination with the substances supporting metabolism I. to. in the direction, necessary for an organism. I. to. apply also in combination with nek-ry pharmaceuticals to strengthening of their action or removal of their toxic side effects since amber to - that is the natural, rather non-toxic and not collecting substance.
Abroad I. to. and its salts find application as diuretic, laxative, anti-sclerous, antiacid and other means. Sodium salt amber to - you (Soduxin) is used for removal from an anesthesia and from coma at poisonings with morphine and its derivatives or barbiturates. Nek-ry researchers consider that sodium salt Ya. to. it is effective at treatment of anemias, hron. heart failure, for maintenance after heavy exercise stresses. In the USSR as pharmaceuticals use a number of drugs, a part to-rykh are I. to. and its derivatives: Suxilepum (see. Antiepileptic means), Succimerum, pre-dion (see), levomycetinum succinate soluble (see Levomycetinum), a hydrocortisone gemisuktsinat (see the Hydrocortisone), etc.
the Bibliography: Anisimov V. N. of M. N ikond-rashov. Influence of succinic acid on the frequency of spontaneous tumors and life expectancy of mice of SZN/Sn, Dokl. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, t. 248, No. 5, page 1242, 1979; Lenindzher A. Biochemistry, the lane with English, M., 1976; Therapeutic effect of succinic acid, under the editorship of M. N. Kondrashova, Pushchino, 1976; Singer T. River, To e and r n e at E. V. a. Kenney W. Page of Succinate dehydrogenase, Ad-vanc. Enzymol., v. 37, p. 189, 1973.
H. V. Gulyaeva.