STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS - a method of studying of structure of various systems, i.e. structure and interrelations of the elements forming them, decomposition of elements on the separate subsets possessing specific characteristics of interrelations. Page and. includes also the analysis of structure of managing systems, hierarchies of management, coherences are more whole than subsystems of various levels, distribution of the carried-out functions between levels and nodes of system, etc. (see. Systems analysis ).
The structure of system is understood as structure of its elements with the corresponding interrelations. Complexity of system is defined by number of the elements forming it, degree of their coherence, complexity of algorithms of the choice of these or those managing influences and volume of information processed at the same time. An example of such system studied from positions C. and., the system of the organization of health care is. The health system — the difficult non-productive industry of the national economy — is closely connected with other its industries and therefore shall consider quickly arising changes in structure of society and the national economy in general. Distinctions in terms of implementation of results of large-scale research programs and developments of new medical equipment belong to number of the features of a health system complicating tasks of the analysis and synthesis of its structure, in particular, (in some cases they reach 5 — 15 years).
The health system has complex hierarchical structure. At the same time the criteria of efficiency of functioning are characteristic of each level of hierarchy and even of subsystems of one level. Efficiency of activity of separate levels and subsystems is estimated by a certain set of criteria. As the health system as object of management is characterized by many difficult formalizable factors and in a number of cases lack of a possibility of its adequate model, at decision-making the role of a subjective component is very responsible and considerable. In this regard the particularly important becomes use of the optimization simulation models oriented to dialogue duties as one of important means of decision-making at various hierarchical levels. Such systems of models allow the person making decisions to lose various options of creation of structure and functioning of system in general or its subsystems and to choose the best among these options. Formalization of processes of adoption of administrative decisions demands development of the special methods considering variety of criteria of efficiency of activity of system (see. Control system ).
Tasks of the analysis and synthesis of structure of health systems arise at the level of all system, at the organization of scientific research, development automated control systems (see) etc.
In the analysis of structure of any complex systems, including and in medicine, existence of information on interrelation between its separate elements as these interrelations have significant effect on functioning of all system is important. So, in development of medicine in its various areas there are separate problems which are most intensively developed by various institutions or groups of scientists (including from various countries). The analysis of structure of information interrelations between scientific problems, and also their quantitative characteristics, is of particular importance at the solution of a number of practical administrative tasks. E.g., the analysis of structure of information bonds between the scientific directions in the field of oncology allowed to construct information model of oncology as scientific discipline.
The structure of a control system of health care shall include network of data processing centers, at the same time information from ACS of medical institutions on communication channels comes to information centers of various levels. The structure of network of data processing centers shall promote implementation of flexible and operating control by a health system.
The human body also represents the complex system consisting of a large number of the interconnected elements with diverse interrelations of the functions which are carried out by them. Therefore the structurally functional analysis of activity of a human body in general, its separate subsystems and bodies especially is important (see. Functional systems ), including the analysis on the basis of methods of mathematical modeling (see. Modelling ). Due to the expansion of pilot studies on a problem of artificial heart and use in clinic of the systems «organism — an artificial organ» special relevance was acquired by systems analysis of functioning of an organism with artificial organs. Use of artificial means for maintenance of life activity of an organism usually leads to essential changes of the structurally functional scheme various fiziol. mechanisms of an organism; there is a task of the analysis of homeostatic properties of an organism depending on structurally functional features of its systems (see. Regulation in biological systems ).
S.'s problems and. arise also during the modeling of systems at molecular level as the main subject to such modeling are molecular complexes in a cell.
Characteristic feature of practical works on the analysis and synthesis of structures is broad use of the mathematical methods allowing to formalize S.'s process and. these or those systems. At the same time the main efforts of scientists, are directed to creation of both exact, and approximate (heuristic) methods (see. Heuristic methods ).
Bibliography: Biological aspects of the theory of management, under the editorship of. A. M. Petrovsky, M., 1976; Tsvirkun A. D. Bases of synthesis of structure of complex systems, M., 1982, bibliogr.
A. D. Tsvirkun.