STRIDOR (Latin stridor hissing, whistle; synonym stidor breath) — the hissing sound arising at breath caused by passing of air through sharply narrowed respiratory tracts (a throat, a trachea).
At small narrowing of respiratory tracts of S. appears only at overbreathing; at the expressed S.'s stenosis arises also at normal respiration. Unlike remote rattles (see), the bronchial tubes tied with obstruction, S. is more expressed in an inspiratory phase and is characterized by a sharp creaking sound.
Distinguish S. inborn and S. caused various patol. processes.
The most frequent reason of S. caused patol. processes, are isolated laryngospasm (see), napr, at spasmophilias (see), hysteria (see), a spasm of a throat in combination with allergic or its inflammatory hypostasis at flu, measles, etc. (see the Croup), and also foreign bodys in a gleam of a throat or trachea, a tumor of respiratory tracts and mediastinums, injuries of a throat. In the past the diphtheritic croup was the frequent cause of S. In need of bystry identification of the reason of S. (a stenosis of a throat or trachea) are guided by characteristic symptoms. So, at S. caused by a stenosis of a throat (see the Laryngostenosis), loud, with a sharp creaking sound on a breath breath is often combined with an aphonia (see); the patient on a breath raises the head, throws back it back, and the epiglottis falls, rising on an exhalation. At a stenosis of a trachea (see the Tracheostenosis) the sharp creaking sound on a breath often is absent, the voice is not changed; the patient on a breath raises shoulders, lowers a chin, the epiglottis is not mobile.
S.'s emergence demands urgent establishment and elimination of its reason. Urgent intervention because of a possibility of asphyxia is often necessary (see).
The inborn stridor arises in the first days of life of the child. Disturbances of an innervation of muscles of a throat, and also congenital anomalies (narrowing of a throat, weakness of her muscles, the soft, developing epiglottis, cherpalonadgortanny folds coming to each other, inborn softness of tracheal rings) can be inborn S.'s cause. Inborn S. is more often observed at the newborns who had asphyxia in labor, hron. pre-natal hypoxia; in this case frustration of an innervation of a throat and a trachea of functional character are its cornerstone.
Noisy breath of different loudness is listened constantly, more clearly on a breath; it amplifies during the crying, concern, an inflammation of respiratory tracts. The general state at the same time is not broken, purity of a voice and the normal act of suction remains. During a breath retraction of compliant places of a thorax, breast is observed that gives to a thorax the funneled form.
Inborn S. is differentiated with the noisy breath arising at a papillomatosis of a throat (see. Throat, tumors ), a prelum of a trachea a tumor (see the Trachea), the cyst of a mediastinum (see) increased by a thymus (see) at hit of foreign bodys (see) in a trachea or bronchial tubes.
Inborn S. does not demand treatment and disappears by the end of the first year of life of the child.
Bibliography: Kerpel-Fronius E. Pediatrics, the lane with Wenger., Budapest, 1975; Korones III. B. Newborns of high risk, the lane with English, M., 1981; The Guide to children's diseases, under the editorship of G. Fankoni and A. Valgren, lane with it., page 490, 514, M., 1960; The Textbook of diseases of early children's age, under the editorship of G. N. Speransky, M. — L., 1938; Neonatology, ed. by E. Every, N. Y., 1975; S o u with h o n F. Zur Differentialdiagnose des Stridors bei Sauglingen, Mschr. Kin-derheilk., Bd 109, S. 25, 1961.
V. P. Zhmurkin; L. I. Lukina (ped.).