From Big Medical Encyclopedia

STOMATOLOGY (Greek stoma, stomatos of companies + logos the doctrine) — the field of clinical medicine studying an etiology and a pathogeny of diseases and injuries of teeth, jaws and other bodies of an oral cavity and maxillofacial area, developing methods of their diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

The unity of anatomo-physiological and functional features of bodies and tissues of an oral cavity and surrounding fabrics, specificity of an etiology and pathogeny of their diseases, features of diagnosis and carrying out to lay down. actions promoted S.'s allocation in separate discipline. Distinguish several main sections C.: therapeutic, surgical, orthopedic with orthodontics and materials science, S. of children's age, and also military Page.

The therapeutic stomatology includes studying and diagnosis of diseases of teeth (see), peridental tissues and a mucous membrane of a mouth, development of the methods of their treatment directed to retention of structure and functions. Therapeutic S. is based on the principles of the general pathology and reveals communication local patol. changes in an oral cavity and maxillofacial area with diseases of internals and systems of an organism. In turn diseases of teeth and the fabrics surrounding them lead to a number of diseases of an organism and its systems (e.g., to oral sepsis, a rheumatic carditis, nephrite, etc.). In this regard the therapeutic stomatology serves for prevention not only stomatol. diseases, but also their complications.

Enter therapeutic S.: the endodontiya developing methods of mechanical and medicinal impact on channels of fangs, including their sealing; the parodontologiya which is engaged in studying of fabrics of a parodont (see) and also prevention and treatment of his diseases. Also questions of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of caries (see Caries of tooth) and diseases of a mucous membrane of a mouth belong to therapeutic S.

The surgical stomatology is engaged in studying and diagnosis of diseases and damages of bodies of an oral cavity and maxillofacial area, development surgical, W. h operational, methods of their treatment. It includes surgery of teeth, purulent surgery of an oral cavity, maxillofacial and cervical areas, treatment of tumors of an oral cavity and maxillofacial area, including sialadens, injuries of maxillofacial area, elimination of the inborn and acquired defects, plastic (plastic) surgery.

Orthopedic S. studies disturbances of integrity and functions of teeth and jaws, their diagnosis and development of methods of prevention and treatment by prosthetics (see Dentures), and also uses of the replacing and regulating devices (see Ortodoptichesky methods of treatment). Orthopedic S. includes the Orthodontics which is engaged in studying, treatment and prevention of anomalies of development and deformation of teeth, dentitions and jaws. The section of materials science also belongs to orthopedic stomatology.

The stomatology of children's age — the section C., to-rogo is included studying of formation and development of bodies and fabrics of maxillofacial area at the child into tasks, and also development and use of methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, anomalies of teeth, jaws, a mucous membrane of a mouth at children. In S. of children's age features of a children's organism are considered. In a crust, time stomatol. help to children is given in specialized stomatol. children's policlinics. in children's departments of dental and children's policlinics, in stomatol. offices of schools, day nursery gardens and children's BCs.

Stomatology, or a zubovrachevaniye, the same ancient industry of medicine, as well as many others (see Medicine). The first data on tooth diseases and their treatment belong to an extreme antiquity. However S. not always considered medical specialty. As the independent field of medicine of S. was defined 17 at the end — the beginning of 18 century thanks to works of a number of outstanding doctors, first of all the fr. doctor P. Foshar. Further development of S. was promoted development of methods of production of artificial gold crowns (1756), by sealings of teeth silver amalgam (1819), special cements (1858), uses arsenous to - you (1836), the invention of modern tooth nippers (1840) and a foot drill (1870).

The great influence on S.'s development in the second half 19 and the beginning of 20 century was rendered by achievements of biology, physiology, biochemistry, chemistry and other sciences. There was a number of researches on morphology of teeth, to caries, oral sepsis and other problems. Close connection of S. with other sections of medicine and that is especially important, studying stomatol was established. diseases began to carry out from all-pathological positions.

Development of a zubovrachevaniye in the territory of our country traces the roots back to an extreme antiquity. The odontectomy was represented on the vase found in Scythian burials (4 century BC). Among the handicraftsmen living in the territory of the Moscow state in 16 century were listed as well zubovolok. The first acquired the right to be engaged in a zubovrachevaniye in Russia the Frenchman Francois Dub-rel in 1710. In 1810 the first programkhma of tests for a rank of «the tooth doctor» was accepted. Since 1838 tooth doctors began to be called dentists. The last were trained by dentists, graduates of schools on dental surgery art. The dentist acquired the right for independent practice after examination at medicochirurgical academy or at medical faculties of high fur boots. Women acquired the right to study a zubovrachevaniye in 1829. The first Russian school on studying of dental surgery art was open in St. Petersburg in 1881 under the leadership of F. I. Vazhinsky.

In 1883 in Russia 441 dentists

Vanguard of development of a zubovrachevaniye practiced in Russia there were progressive dentists and dentists, many from to-rykh in the subsequent became organizers Soviet to Page. In no small measure development of domestic stomatology was promoted scientific and practical about-va, arisen in St. Petersburg (1883), Moscow (1891, 1898), Kiev, Odessa, Tiflis, etc. Not only special questions were discussed at meetings of societies and at the congresses held by them (the first took place in 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod), but social and political problems often moved forward what dissolution of the IV congress of the Russian union of dental surgery societies (1905) by the imperial government testifies to. Work dental surgery about-in, various organizational aspects, and also the last scientific achievements were reflected in special periodic literature — «The dental surgery messenger» (1885 — 1917) and «the Odontologichesky review» (1899 — 1915).

In Russia during the pre-revolutionary period about 30 dissertations on questions C were defended. A. K. Limberg's theses (1891), A were devoted to prevention and treatment of diseases of solid tissues of tooth. I. Kudryashova (1894), I. A. Krause (1897); to an alveolar pyorrhea and stomatitises — H. N. Nesmeyanova (1905), K. Ya. Teplova (1912); to surgical and judicial S.'s questions — V. M. An-tonevich (1865), G. I. Vilgi (1903), P. A. Bogoslovsky (1908), P. A. Osokin (1910), A. B. Izachika (1914); to anatomo-physiological questions C. — V. V. Dementiev (1886), N. A. Gerkena (1892), V. I. Roginsky (1901).

However the general level of dental surgery service was extremely low. Only with establishment of the Soviet power S. took the appropriate place in uniform system of socialist health care.

From first months of the Soviet power the attention to rendering the dental surgery help to the population on a large scale was paid. In July, 1918 in Narkomzdrava of RSFSR the dental surgery subsection under the leadership of P. G. Dauge was created, carrying out the accounting of all dental surgery accessories and materials, streamlining of work of personnel and the organization of the dental surgery help to the population belonged to duties a cut. As a result an action, carried out by a dental surgery subsection Narkomzdrava RSFSR, stomatol. the help in the first years of the Soviet power considerably improved and became more available to the population.

The dental surgery subsection Narkomzdrava of RSFSR in 1918 raised a question of creation of publication, to-ry would promote exchange of experience of medical and scheduled maintenance. Till 1922 several issues of magazines according to S. under different names in Moscow, Petrograd, Kharkiv were issued. Since 1922 the edition of the Stomatologiya magazine is begun, to-ry till 1937 left under the names «Bulletin of the State Zubovrachevaniye», «Magazine of Odontology and Stomatology», «Odontology and Stomatology», «Soviet Stomatology».

An important action for scientific S.'s development was creation medical, the scientific researcher - skikh in-t and departments of stomatology. In October, 1918 the decree Narkomzdrava and the National commissariat of education of RSFSR about reform of dental surgery education was issued, to-ry it was prepared by the Scientific odontologichesky commission at a dental surgery subsection Narkomzdrava RSFSR. According to this decree obligatory teaching odontology in medical in-ta where the relevant departments were organized was entered, dental surgery education became an integral part of the general system of medical education. In 1919 were open the state odontologichesky Monday t in Kiev and in-t of a public zubovrachevaniye in Petrograd, in 1921 — odontologicheskiya of f-t in Kharkiv medical in-those. In 1922 in Moscow it was organized State by in-t of a zubovrachevaniye (GIZ), afterwards renamed in State in-t of stomatology and odontology (GISO), and then transformed in Moscow medical dental by in-t (MMSI), to-ry in a crust, time is leading research institute of the country on study questions and scientific stomatol. the center in RSFSR.

In the late twenties were open scientific and practical in-you in Gorky, Odessa, Minsk, paying special attention to improvement of dentists and stomatol. to training of the doctors who ended medical in-you. Dentists were entitled the dentist after one and a half years of training, and only in 1935 Narkomzdrava was established to RSFSR by the decision the 4-year term of training in stomatol. in-ta. A big event for S. was opening the same year 11 stomatol. in-comrade. In 1949 stomatol. in-you were renamed in medical dental in-you, in to-rykh training 5 years proceeded. In 1957 — 1958 further measures for expansion of preparation stomatol were taken. shots. A big role in scientific S.'s development introduction in 1937 played systems of a clinical internship and a postgraduate study in in-ta and at departments. In the organization of the highest stomatol. education there are a lot of forces and knowledge enclosed E. M. Gofung, A. I. Evdokimov, I. G. Lukomsky, 3. B. Piryatin-sky, D. A. Entin.

Preparation of the qualified medical and scientific shots was premises to development of the problems facing S. Tak, only during 1935 — 1940 was protected the 116th edging. and dokt. theses. In total by 1982 in the country the St. 2,5 thousand the edging was protected. and dokt. theses, more than 50 thousand scientific works on questions C are published. In 1962 in Moscow it was open Central research for in-t of stomatology of M3 of the USSR (TsNIIS), carrying out as in head in-t of Scientific council of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences on stomatology of function of planning and coordination of scientific research in the country in the area C., and also preparation of scientific shots.

The Soviet stomatologists made a noticeable contribution to business of development both domestic, and world Page. S. I. Weis, E. I. Gavrilov, A. I. Evdokimov, I. G. Lukom-sky, A. I. Rybakov's basic researches, L. I. Ur-banovich, E. B. Bohr in many respects promoted the solution of questions of an etiology, pathogeny and treatment of caries of teeth and its complications. On pilot models of caries of teeth, in particular by means of a sakharozokazeinovy cariogenic diet, such important details of its pathogeny as permeability of enamel and dentine, demineralization and a mineralization of tissues of tooth are studied, mechanisms of process of destruction of solid tissues of teeth are opened. As a result of the conducted researches the harmonious system of active prevention of caries of teeth including a complex of the general and local means is created (see. Caries of tooth ). Among the last it should be noted the remineralizing solutions and gels, fluorinated varnishes developed by the Soviet scientists.

Researches of the last years allowed to change considerably methods of treatment of pulpitises and periodontitis. Widely physical methods of treatment, enzymes, and also the methods sparing a periodontium began to be applied. Successful treatment of periodontitis considerably lowered number of the extracted teeth that played a big role in prevention went. - kish. and allergic diseases.

The Soviet scientists pay much attention to a problem periodontosis (see). Thanks to N. F. Danilevsky, A. I. Evdokimov, V. Yu. Kurlyandsky, D. A. Entin's works, E. E. Platonov, V. V. Panikarov-sky, A. I. Rybakov the polyetiological nature of periodontosis was established.

Considerable success is achieved also in the solution of a number of questions of diseases of a mucous membrane of a mouth. A wedge, and experimental observations of domestic and foreign scientists demonstrate that in an etiology of diseases of a mucous membrane of a mouth regulatory functions of a nervous system play a role. Bonds of diseases of a mucous membrane of a mouth with diseases are studied went. - kish. path, blood, inf. diseases, etc. Opening at damage of a mucous membrane of a mouth of a specific antigen is important.

Achievements in the field of surgical S. by right are pride of domestic science and practice. If in last years destiny of surgeons-stomatologists were operations within alveolar shoots, then now they make resections of jaws with simultaneous plastic substitution of defects, operational movement of jaws, substitution of extensive defects of soft tissues, elimination of malformations (lips, jaws), perform effective treatment of injuries of jaws and the person. A specific place in the history of the Soviet S. is held by questions of a plastic surgery. Thanks to works E. A. Alexandrova, Yu. I. Vernadsky, N. I. Butikova, G. A. Vasilyev, E. V. Gruzdkova, V. A. Gusynin, A. A. Limberg, P. P. Lvov, H. M. Mikheljsona, M. V. Mukhina, A. E. Rauera, F. M. Hitrova were developed and found world recognition skin plastics by means of local fabrics, free skin rags, a bucket-handle skin graft; bone plastics; use of a cartilage and plastic; plastic creation of a throat and elimination of defects of a neck. For works on plastic surgery State awards were conferred by H. M. Michelson and A. E. Rauer (1946), A. A. Limberg (1948), and F. M. Hitrov (1964) became the winner of the Lenin award. To group of researchers to P.3. Arzhantsev, H. To N. Bazhanov (see t. 20, additional materials), to P. G. Sysolyatin, N. A. Plotnikov, A. A. Nikitin, G. P. Ter-Asaturov, G. I. Lavri-shcheva for development of a new method of bone plastics of a mandible the State award USSR is awarded in 1981. Big merits in the field of treatment of injuries (including gunshot wounds) maxillofacial area belong to G. I. Vilge, M. D. Dubov, A. To I. Evdokimov, G. A. Vasilyev, B. D. Kabakov, A. A. Limberg, B. To F. Rudjko, D. A. Entin, etc.

An important problem of surgery always was anesthesia. Yu. I. Vernadsky, S. N. Vi-sblat devoted to questions of anesthesia at operative measures on maxillofacial area the works, And. M. Starobinsky, N. V. Fetisov, etc. Devices for an electroanaesthesia (EL03-1) and needleless injektor (BI-8) are created and found broad application.

Representatives of the Soviet orthopedic school — A. I. Betel-man, B. I. Bynin, S. E. Gel-manokhm, I. M. Oksman created and implemented functional diagnostic methods of diseases of dentoalveolar system and difficult maxillofacial prosthetics. And corrections of dentoalveolar anomalies are devoted to questions of recovery of dentitions B. R. Weinstein's works, L. V. Il-inoy-Markosyan, D. A. Kalvelis, etc. For elimination of dysfunctions of chewing by the Soviet stomatologists-orthopedists A. Ya. Katts, I. S. Rubinov, V. Yu. Kurlyandsky, E. I. Gavrilov were entered into practice fiziol. methods with use of the latest developments of physiology. A. I. Doynikov, S. I. Krishtab, X. A. Kalam-karov offered a number of methods for recovery of functions of the chewing device. The big contribution to orthopedic S.'s development was made by C. S. Ass and D. N. Tsitrin who developed special stainless steel grades and technology of its processing for a denture, and also 3. V. Kopp and I. I. Revzin who implemented in stomatol. to the practician of plastic, for what awards were conferred State. It is necessary to refer development of porcelain weight by scientists of TsNIIS to achievements of the last years «Scale» for preparation of porcelain crowns, special alloy for a metal part of ceramic-metal designs, fire-resistant masses for high-precision casting. Developments of the Soviet stomatologists allowed to refuse at denture treatment many materials of foreign production (see. Dentures ).

Much attention in our country is paid to development stomatol. help to children. For the purpose of improvement of diagnostic methods, treatment and the prevention of the main stomatol. diseases at children in MMSI in 1963 the department of stomatology of children's age was organized. In 1968 the department of stomatology of children's age in TsIU of doctors was created, on a cut under the leadership of T. F. Vinogradova the system of post-degree training of children's stomatologists was developed. In 1976 for the first time in the USSR «The guide to stomatology of children's age» under A. I. Evdokimov and T. F. Vinogradova's edition was published. In recent years in a number of medical in-t of the country (Perm, Kalinin, Leningrad, Lviv, Kiev, Minsk, etc.) the departments of stomatology of children's age which are engaged in methodical work, training, scientific research, medical and scheduled maintenance are organized.

History C. is connected with activity scientific about-in — holding organizational actions (congresses, conferences), personnel training, development of scientific research and their implementation in practical health care.

For exchange of experience and promoting of scientific achievements in 1958 it was organized All-Union scientific medical about-in stomatologists, combined specialists stomatol. a profile (see Societies medical). Its supreme body is the All-Union congress convened, as a rule, every 6 years (see Congresses medical). Between congresses about-vom the elected board and its presidium manage. Plenums of board are convened time in 2 years. In all federal and autonomous republics, and also in edges, areas, the cities and areas there are republican scientific medical about-va stomatologists, their branches and sections.

Works of the last All-Union congresses of stomatologists were devoted to problems of caries of teeth and its complications (Moscow, 1962), stomatol. help to children (Kiev, 1968), periodontosis (Leningrad, 1975), surgical and orthopedic stomatology (Tashkent, 1981).

Soviet stomatol. the science gained wide recognition around the world. All-Union scientific medical about-in stomatologists since 1968 is a member of the International federation of stomatologists (FDI). In this organization, and also in service of stomatology of WHO as experts the Soviet specialists successfully work. Besides, being the regional center WHO since 1967, TsNIIS carries out under the contract with this organization epidemiol. researches of prevalence stomatol. diseases. Big contribution to development stomatol. sciences are brought by cooperation with the socialist countries (GDR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary), a cut is expressed in exchange of results of scientific research, scientific publications, in carrying out joint researches and exchange of delegations.

Research institutes of stomatology exist in England, Belgium, Holland, Spain, Italy, France, Japan. In the USA in Betezda the National scientific institute of stomatology functions.

Various questions C. are taken up in the Stomatologiya magazine, a publisher to-rogo since 1967 together with M3 of the USSR is All-Union scientific medical about-in stomatologists, continuous annual releases — works TsNIIS, MMSI, the interdepartmental collection of Zdorovye publishing house (Kiev), in monographs and the guides. In «The medical abstract magazine» (the section «Stomatology», XII) publish papers and summaries of the most original works of domestic and foreign scientists on S. and related issues.

The village takes the important place in system of the higher medical education. In 1983 training was carried out 2 stomatol. in-that and 44 stomatol. f-that in all federal republics; reception on stomatol. f-you made more than 7,5 thousand people. For the tenth five-years period it was open 11 new stomatol. f-tov, in all medical in-ta the highest is entered uniform stomatol. education with a subinternship and an internship. In 16 in-ta of improvement of doctors there are departments C.

In the country work two research in-that stomatology — in Moscow (TsNIIS) and in Odessa (Odessa research with in-t of stomatology of M3 of USSR). In 1983 in scientific and educational institutions, practical health care worked apprx. 2 thousand scientists stomatol. profile.

Organization of the dental help. Stomatol. the help is one of the most widespread types of specialized medical aid to the population. On number of addresses she takes the second place after the therapeutic help. Modern S. is under construction on preventive bases, on achievements of the advanced medical science and technology.

In the USSR stomatol. help to the population is given in out-patient and stationary conditions. There are two main organizational methods of rendering out-patient stomatol. the help — on negotiability and in a planned order — dispensary. All groups of the population, first of all children, pregnant women, pupils, workers of the industrial and agricultural state enterprises, military personnel, patients with diseases of nek-ry bodies and systems of an organism are subject to dispensary observation (see Medical examination) (see Sanitation of an oral cavity). More and more the method of the organization stomatol is widely adopted. services by the local principle. Depending on specific conditions of the district of service and structure of the population can be created territorial, shop, shkolnodoshkolny stomatol. sites. At the local and shop principle succession, efficiency is provided to lay down. works the doctor-ostomy-tologa, is increased its role and personal responsibility.

Network out-patient stomatol. institutions and divisions it is presented independent stomatol. policlinics (for service of children's and adult population), and also the departments and offices which are a part all-profile to lay down. - the prof. of institutions. Along with expansion of network stomatol. departments and offices paramount value has development of network stomatol. policlinics (see Policlinic). Stomatol. the offices which are divisions all-profile to lay down. - prof. of institutions, are divided on stationary and mobile. Mobile offices are located in special buses or are developed in the allocated rooms on places (at schools, field camps, etc.).

In a crust, time stomatol. help to the population is given by dentists, dentists and dental technicians, the number to-rykh constantly increases. Due to gradation to uniform system of training of doctors stomatol. a profile with the higher medical education their qualitative players are changed, in the general structure of specialists the specific weight of dentists increases.

Growth of number of doctors stomatol. a profile, the increase in productivity of their work caused by achievements stomatol. sciences, and improvement of organizational actions provided growth of qualitative quantitative indices of work stomatol. institutions. So, the number of visits a year on average over the country increased by one inhabitant with 0,66 in 1960 to 1,4 in 1980.

An essential role in the general system stomatol. the help to the population plays hospitalization. Stationary stomatol. help is given in specialized stomatol. clinics and on specialized stomatol. beds of surgical departments. Stomatol. beds would also be available in republican, regional, regional and the regional centers.

Planning of development stomatol. the help to the population it is carried out on the basis of results of mass surveys of the population and epidemiol. researches.

The military stomatology studies fighting injuries of maxillofacial area, their clinical course, the organization and methods of delivery of health care wounded in the maxillofacial area, and also prevention and treatment stomatol. diseases at the military personnel in peace and wartime.

In Russia the first maxillary infirmary was open for wounded in Petrograd in 1914. In 1915 in all-surgical hospital of the Winter Palace maxillary department under the leadership of D. A. Entin was organized. In 1915 the dentist of the Russian army S. S. Tigersh-tedt suggested to use nazubny tires to fixing of fragments of jaws at gunshot wounds. This method improved by A. E. Rauer and A. A. Limber-gom, was widely used in days of civil and the Great Patriotic War of wars.

The Soviet military S. formed on the basis of association of methods of a zubovrachevaniye and the general surgery. The foundation for it was laid by outstanding stomatologists D. A. Entin, A. I. Evdokimov, A. A. Limberg, etc. In 1918 as a part of the Head military and sanitary department of RKKA office-work concerning the organization of the dental surgery help in army was founded and thus the official foundation is laid for the Soviet military S. V formation 1920 at the Higher medical school at military hospital (nowadays Main military clinical hospital of H. N. Burdenko) the department C. led by the prof. L. A. Goveeev was created, edges in 1922 was a part of GIZ. In to lay down. institutions of military districts and the fleet were created independent stomatol. departments, policlinics and stomatol. offices. More and more widely various methods stomatol were implemented. the help — surgical, therapeutic and orthopedic, new modifications of a combination extraoral and in oral fixing of fragments of jaws were applied.

In 1929 the independent course of odontology in VMA was transformed to department C. with clinic, to-ruyu D. A. Entin headed. Specialists of department of maxillofacial surgery and stomatology of VMA executed a number of the works devoted to topical issues military by Page. At department organizational and scientific bases of planned sanitation of an oral cavity in troops and hospitals, system of the help and methods of treatment wounded in the maxillofacial area at various stages of medical evacuation were developed. In 1935 — 1936 sets of special laying of property for rendering stomatol were created. help. D. A. Entin prepared the first textbook on military maxillofacial surgery. In special instructions and methodical instructions uniform approach in the solution of fundamental issues of treatment of victims was stated.

Scientific achievements of military S. and training of stomatologists in VMA and medical in-ta of the country played an important role in effektavny treatment wounded in the maxillofacial area in days of the Great Patriotic War, the qualified medical assistance the Crimea was given since divisional first-aid posts (see the Face, Jaws). Treatment wounded in the maxillofacial area in the back was carried out in specialized hospitals by dentists with participation of ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, neurosurgeons, etc. (see. Stage treatment). Made a large contribution to treatment of seriously wounded to maxillofacial area stomatol. department of the Main military clinical hospital of H. N. Burdenko.

During the post-war period the department of maxillofacial surgery of VMA as the main methodical and organizational center for military S.'s questions carried out preparation of the managerial personnel for military to lay down. - the prof. of institutions, development of methods of primary prevention of diseases of teeth, studying of an etiology, pathogeny and treatment of inflammatory, oncological diseases of maxillofacial area, and also questions of an electroanesthesia.

Stomatol. the help to staff of army and fleet is rendered by dentists in stomatol. offices of parts, mobile stomatol. offices and departments of hospitals and policlinics. The organizational centers of scientific and practical activities of stomatologists on places are stomatol. departments of district and naval military hospitals, district stomatol. policlinics. For rendering the methodical help to specialists stomatol. departments, policlinics and stomatol. offices of bodies in military districts and on the fleet field meetings of a subsection of maxillofacial surgery and stomatology of academic medical council of TsVMU are periodically held. The big role in the Soviet military S.'s development belongs to the chief stomatologists of types of Armed Forces, military districts and the fleet.


History — Bassalyk D. A. Reform of dental surgery education in 1918 — 1920 and its development in RSFSR in days of the first five-years periods, Stomatology, No. 5, page 82, 1961, bibliogr.; Evdoki-mov A. I. Soviet stomatology (1917 — 1957), in the same place, No. 5, page 3, 1957; To about in and r with to and y M. Short history of a zubovrachevaniye, p.1, M., 1928; Lukomsky I. G. Development of scientific stomatology in the USSR, Stomatology, No. 5, page 27, 1937; Trojan G. N. Istoriya of the Soviet stomatology, M., 1983; Geis t-Jacobi G. P. Geschichte der Zahnheilkunde, Tiibingen, 1896; Sud-h o f f K. Geschichte der Zahnheilkunde, Lpz., 1921, Bibliogr.

Guides, textbooks, reference media — Agapov N. I. Clinical stomatology of children's age, M., 1 953; Arzhantsev of Item 3., Ivashchenko G. M. and Lurye T. M. Treatment of injuries of the person, M., 1975; B of e r N and d-with to and y Yu. I. Soviet dental literature, Bibliographic index, 1917 — 1945, t. 1, M., 1951; it, Fundamentals of surgical stomatology, Kiev, 1983; Bohr E. V. and d river. Therapeutic stomatology, M., 1982; Gavrilov E. I. and About to cm and I. M N. Orthopedic stomatology, M., 1978; Gofung E. M and E N-t and D. A N. Therapeutic stomatology, M. — L., 1938; D and at e P. G. Social fundamentals of the Soviet stomatology, M., 1933; Evdokimov A. I. and Vasilyev G. A. Surgical stomatology, M., 1964; 3 and at with and e in P. V., etc. Surgical stomatology, M., 1981: Kal ve D. A. Ortodontiya's foxes, L., 1964; Klementov A. V. Diseases of sialadens, L., 1975; Kurland V. Yu. Orthopedic stomatology, M., 1977; Limberg A. A. and Lviv P. P. The textbook of surgical stomatology, M. — L., 1938; Bases of the organization of the dental help to the population, under the editorship of G. N. Pakhomov, M., 1983; Pakhomov G. N. Primary prevention in stomatology, M., 1982; P r about x about A. A., Loginov N. K. N-chukov. both and and N and N. A. Functional diagnosis in dental practice, M., 1980; Rau Ayr A. E. and M and-helson H. M. Plastic surgeries on the person, M., 1954; I. S Rubies. Physiological fundamentals of stomatology, L., 1970; The Guide to therapeutic stomatology, under the editorship of A. I. Evdokimov and A. I. Rybakov, M., 1967; The Guide to surgical stomatology, under the editorship of A. I. Evdokimov, M., 1972; A. I. Fishermen and r and N and A. V N. Prevention of caries of teeth, M., 1976; Fishermen And. And. and And in and N about in V. S. Klinik of therapeutic stomatology, M., 1980 Soviet stomatology in 60 years, under the editorship of A. I. Rybakov, M., 1977; Works of the 6th All-Union congress of stomatologists, M., 1976; Works of the 7th All-Union congress of stomatologists, M., 1981; Shugar L. and d river. Diseases of an oral cavity, the lane with Wenger., Budapest, 1980; Kavrakirov V. Ya., And N and with t and with about in To. and M and x and y l about in L. I. Operativni a method in a front chelyustnata surgery, Sofia, 1981; Becker R. u. Morgenroth K. Pathologie der Miindhohle, Stuttgart, 1979; Breus-t e d t A. o. Prosthetische Stomatolo-gie, Lpz., 1981; Complications of head and neck surgery, ed. by Z. Z. Conley, Philadelphia a. o., 1979; The diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, ed. by J. F. Prichard, Philadelphia a. o., 1979; G 1 i with k m a n I. Clinical periodontology, Philadelphia, 1979; Grundlagen der kli-nischen Stomatologie, hrsg. v. G. Saege-mann, Lpz., 1976; Jenkins G. N. The physiology and biochemistry of the mouth, Oxford a. o., 1978; M i with h an i-1 o w s k i R. Choroby warg i btony slu-sowej jamy ustnej, Warszawa, 1981; Pathways of the pulp, ed. by S. Cohen a. R. C. Burns, St Louis, 1980; Pediatric dentistry, ed. by T. K. Barber a. L. S. Luke, Boston a. o., 1982; R a m f j o r d S. P. a. A s h M. M. Periodontology and periodontics, Philadelphia a. o., 1979; S n a w-d e r K. D. Handbook of clinical pedo-dontics, St Louis a. o., 1980.

Page military — Arshantsev of Item 3., Ivashchenko G. M. and L at r e T. M. Treatment of injuries of the person, M., 1975; B. D., Lukyanenko V. I. Taverns. iarzhanets of Item Z. Short course of military stomatology, L., 1973; they, the Manual on military maxillofacial surgery, therapeutic and orthopedic stomatology, M., 1980; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 6, M., 1951; E N of t and D. A N. The help at the front the maxillofacial wounded, M. — L., 1940; it sh e, Military maxillofacial surgery, M., 1945.

Periodicals — Stomatology, M., since 1937 (1923 — 1926 — the Magazine of odontology and stomatology, 1927 — 1930 — Odontology and stomatology, 1931 — 1936 — the Soviet stomatology); Stomatology, Sofia, since 1951 (1911 — 1951 — Zjbolekarski pregled); Acta odontologica scandinavica, Stockholm, since 1939; Actualites odonto-stomatologiques, P., since 1947; American Journal of Orthodontics, N. Y., since 1948; Annals of Dentistry, N. Y., since 1933; British Dental Journal, L., since 1872; British Journal of Oral Surgery, Edinburgh — L., since 1963; British Journal of Orthodontics, Edinburgh, since 1973; Ceskoslovenska stomatologie, Praha, since 1901; Czasopismo stomatologiczne, Warszawa, since 1948; Deutsche zahnarztliche Zeit-schrift, Munchen, since 1946; Fogorvosi szemle, Budapest, since 1908; International Journal of Orthodontics, Appleton, since 1961; Journal of American Dental Association, Chicago, since 1922 (1913 — 1914 — Official Bulletin of the National Dental Association, 1914 — 1922 — Journal of National Dental Association); Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Copenhagen, since 1974; Journal of Dentistry, Baltimore, since 1972; Journal of Oral Medicine, N. Y., since 1966; Journal of Periodontology, Chicago, since 1930; Revue d’odonto-stomatologie, Bordeaux, since 1948; Stomato-logia, Bucure§ti, since 1954; Stomatologie der DDR, V., since 1950; Zahn — Mund-und Kieferheilkunde, Lpz., since 1974.

A. I. Rybakov; P.3. Arzhantsev (soldier.).