From Big Medical Encyclopedia

STATUS (Latin status standing, situation, a state) — the concept used in medicine at designation: 1) conditions of the patient at the time of inspection (status praesens) and local displays of a disease, an injury (status localis); 2) long current or stability of nek-ry clinical syndromes (e.g., status asthmaticus); 3) like anomaly of the constitution (e.g., status thymicolymphaticus); 4) characteristics of body, reactions, substances (e.g., status spongiosus). The sphere of use of this concept, especially in two last cases, is narrowed in view of its replacement with more adequate designations in the etymological and semantic relation.

Practically the designations of a number of indistinctly outlined syndromes and features of the constitution applied earlier, such as status arthriticus, status asthe-nicus, status degenerativus, status hypoplasticus, etc. are not used, and also concepts, by means of to-rykh the condition of body, reactions is characterized (e.g., status lacunaris, status nascendi). In a wedge, medicine the concept «status» keeps the value in a number of the terms characterizing a condition of the patient or a wedge, syndromes.

Status praesens — a condition of the patient at the moment, a wedge, a picture of a disease at the time of medical inspection. In medical documentation of status praesens it is described in the special section after the description of complaints of the patient and anamnesis (see). The section contains the data of a direct physical research of separate bodies and systems described in a certain sequence. At internal diseases this sequence assumes the description, as a rule, in the beginning of data of the general survey of the patient (see), then results of a research of a respiratory organs, blood circulation, digestion, urinogenital system, at last, conditions of mental activity and a nervous system if their changes on the wedge, to value do not demand the first-priority description as, e.g., at to a coma (see), deliriums (see. Delirious syndrome ) and other expressed disorders of consciousness or in the presence at the patient of paralyzes. The described data give an idea of the general condition of the patient as satisfactory or heavy (status gravis), and severity is specified (a moderately severe state, heavy, very heavy, extremely heavy). At localized patol. processes (especially in dermatological, ophthalmologic, surgical practice, at injuries etc.) the description of status localis — the detailed characteristic of local displays of a disease or injury matters.

Lack of changes in a condition of the patient, his bodies and systems in comparison with data of the previous research designates as status idem (a state without changes). This term is not recommended to be used in diary entries of a case history since practically there are always nek-ry changes in health of the patient, fiziol. departures, symptoms of a disease.

The characteristic the concept «status» of a row a wedge, symptoms and syndromes underlines stability of certain displays of a disease. E.g., the term «status febrilis» designate long steady fever (see) unlike the fervescence limited in time; status typhosus corresponds to a syndrome long (for several days) inf. intoxication of an organism which is followed by febrile fever, a headache, somnolence or twilight consciousness that it is observed at severe forms of typhus (see. Typhoid , Sapropyra epidemic ).

The Nek-ry syndromes characterized by the concept «status» are allocated as especially severe forms of a long course of acute displays of a disease demanding a special complex of emergency treatment. The main of them are status anginosus, status asthmaticus, status epilepticus, status eclampticus; their development is usually considered at a formulation a wedge, diagnosis (see) diseases.

Status anginosus, or status ste-nocardicus — long (of 30 min. till several o'clock) or often arising attacks stenocardias (see), accruing on the intensity, followed by the general weakness, perspiration, feeling of shortage of air, fear of death. There are they owing to acute coronary insufficiency. At the same time arterial hypotension, tachycardia, disturbances of a heart rhythm can be observed; development is possible myocardial infarction (see) with emergence of cardiogenic shock, fluid lungs. Status anginosus demands urgent to lay down. actions and, at an opportunity, hospitalization of patients in a cardiological hospital. Use of nitrates is usually insufficient, include in a therapeutic complex neyroleptanalgetichesky, drugs, tranquilizers, anticoagulants of direct action.

Status asthmaticus (the asthmatic status) — a condition of the progressing suffocation owing to the accruing bronchial obstruction at patients with bronchial asthma conducting to hypoxias (see), hypercapnias (see), to respiratory acidosis (see); it is more often observed at an infectious and allergic form of bronchial asthma (see). (Usually no more than 3 hours) an attack of asthma the asthmatic status differs from the current outlined on phases and which is allowed in limited time in a long current (from many hours to several days), lack of effect of adreno-mimetichesky bronchial spasmolytics and weight of a current with real threat of a lethal outcome from asphyxia (see). Unlike treatment of an attack of asthma, surely include glucocorticoids, massive hydration, administration of alkaline solutions in a complex of therapy of the asthmatic status; if necessary carry out a bronchial lavage, carry out artificial ventilation of the lungs (see. Artificial respiration).

Status epilepticus (the epileptic status) — a severe form of manifestation epilepsies (see) in the form of the epileptic seizures arising one by one, in intervals between to-rymi consciousness completely one attack is not recovered (status absence), or in the form of a long current (several hours or days). At the epileptic status the fluid lungs, coma quite often develops. Hospitalization of the patient is obligatory. In therapy, except the means promoting the termination of an epileptic seizure use the drugs promoting maintenance or the corresponding correlation of functions of breath and blood circulation.

Status eclampticus (the eclamptic status) — the frequent and long attacks of an eclampsia (see) reminding status epilepticus on the manifestations.

For designation of features constitutions (see) the term «status» use generally in two cases: status lymphaticus, to-ry in a crust, time define more often as limfatiko-hypoplastic diathesis (see), and status thymicolymphaticus (see).

Bibliography: Propaedeutics of internal diseases, under the editorship of V. of X. Vasilenko and A. L. Grebenev, M., 1982; Tareev E. M. Internal diseases, M., 1957; Shelagurov A. A. Propaedeutics of internal diseases, M., 1975.

S. M. Kamenker.