STATOKINETIC REACTIONS (the Greek statos standing, delivered directly + to kinetikos moving driving) — the directed redistribution of a tone of skeletal muscles providing preservation of a pose and balance of a body of the person and an animal at angular and linear accelerations in the conditions of active or passive movement in space.
The research of Neuter is closely connected with history of studying of mechanisms of the movement (see) person and animals. The methods of registration of motor reactions developed by E. Marey in the second half of 19 century laid the foundation them fiziol. to the analysis. In a basis of understanding fiziol. mechanisms of Neuter R. Magnus's works about a role of labyrinths of an inner ear in tonic reactions of muscles of eyes, a neck and extremities, maintenance of a pose and balance laid down. N. A. Bernstein's researches in the field of coordination of movements exerted impact on studying of Neuter. He considered the musculoskeletal device of the person as complex kinematic system, in management a cut along with muscular efforts an important role is played by inertial and reactive forces. The researches of the central regulation of proprioceptors conducted by R. Granit allowed to reveal neurophysiological mechanisms of participation of a spinal cord, a brain trunk, a cerebellum and sensomotor area of bark in regulation of a pose and the movement.
Provide to neuter preservation poses (see) and balances of a body (see) both at arbitrary motive acts, and at passive movements of a body in space when there is a positive or negative acceleration (walking, run, swimming, jumps, and also special types of the movement — labor, sports, dancing, etc.).
Neuter are always the integrated reactions of a complete organism arising at action of accelerations of rectilinear and rotary motion and are expressed in change of a tone of muscles of a neck, eyeglobes, a trunk and extremities (see the Tone). Perception of the direction and action of different types of the accelerations influencing a body of the person is carried out by receptors of the otolitovy device and semicircular channels of a labyrinth of an inner ear (see. Vestibular analyzer). The labyrinth has high sensitivity to different types of accelerations (see). E.g., linear shifts of the head of the person with acceleration lead about 0,01 — 0,02 g caused by cordial blows to excitement of otolitovy receptors. It is supposed that such continuous influences from heart support a constant tone of a message-buloretseptorov. Additional insignificant accelerations for a body of the person can arise at the respiratory movements of a thorax and excursions of a diafragkhma causing shifts of abdominal organs and also at a peristaltics of intestines. At artificial thermal or galvanic irritation of a labyrinth there are labyrinth reflexes which are shown in the isolated movement of eyes, the heads, a trunk or extremities (see. Vestibular reactions ). Together with reflexes of rise, descent and landing labyrinth reflexes make group of statokinetic reflexes (see. Magnus — Klein reflexes ).
The signals coming to c. N of page from vestibuloretseptor, cause several types of S.» river. First of all it is rotary reactions of eyes, the heads, extremities and a trunk. So, afferent influences from a labyrinth on muscles of eyes lead to emergence of tonic and rhythmic vestibulookulomotorny reactions. Carry the consensual deviations of eyes resulting from action of linear accelerations or change of position of the head to tonic reactions. The similar movements promote saving the optical image on a retina in time. The same effect is reached by consensual rhythmic fluctuations of eyeglobes at irritation of semicircular channels (see. Nystagmus ). Other group of Neuter is connected with emergence of linear acceleration at the vertical movement of a body (up or down) and is shown in bending and the subsequent extension of a neck, trunk and extremities. Refer to statokinetic also the reactions to the movement of separate parts of a body arising with participation of proprioceptors of various muscles of a trunk and extremities.
Vestibular nuclei of a myelencephalon are the first level of c. N of page where there is a processing of information on the movement or change of position of a body in space arriving from receptors of a labyrinth. Except vozbuzhdeniye from labyrinths, neurons of these kernels receive afferent flows of nervous impulses from proprioceptors of muscles and sinews, and also other structures of c. N of page (cerebellum, reticular formation, basal kernels, motor bark). Vestibular nuclei are a component of system of suprasprshalny management of segmented motive activity of a spinal cord (see). Regulation of the spinal motor reactions arising at action of accelerations and carried out by the supraspinal centers, is based on management of activity of alpha motor-neurons. It is reached not only due to direct exciting and brake impacts on motive cells of front horns of a spinal cord, but also by change of activity inserted and gamma motor-neurons. At the level of internuncial neurons of a spinal cord there are difficult interactions of the vozbuzhdeniye coming from other structures of c. N of page (motor area of bark, a cerebellum, a mesencephalon) and influencing a pose and balance of a body of the person. At implementation of Neuter, the separate parts of a body arising during the movement in space, an important role in regulation of activity of alpha motor-neurons is played by vestibular control of receipt of afferent flows from muscle receptors through gamma motor-neurons.
Disturbances of Neuter can be a consequence of change of a functional condition of a vestibular mechanism or pathology of c. N of page. Functional disorders of a vestibular mechanism result from bruises (an injury of a skull), inflammatory process of an inner ear (see), at circulatory disturbances and circulation of labyrinth liquids, and also at dystrophic processes of various etiology (see. Vestibular symptom complex , Labyrinthopathy ). At defeat of structures of c. the N of the page managing the movements of the person are observed the frustration of Neuter which are shown in difficulty of deduction of balance at implementation of motive acts or emergence of unusual reactions (e.g., the placing reaction observed at the person at tumors of frontal lobes of a brain and at diseases of a cerebellum).
Methods of a research of Neuter are based on assessment by means of special devices and functional trials of a condition of vestibuloretseptor and a vestibular analyzer (see. Vestibulometriya ).
Bibliography: Batuyev A. S. both Tairov O. P. Mozg and organization of movements, JI., 1978, bibliogr.; A squirrel N and I am G. S. Functional system of anti-gravitation, M., 1982, bibliogr.; Bernstein N. A. Sketches on physiology of movements and physiology of activity, M., 1966, bibliogr.; Granite P. Bases of regulation of movements, the lane with English, M., 1973, bibliogr.; To at r and sh in silt and A. E. and V. I Bab-iyak. Physiological functions of vestibular system, «P., 1975, bibliogr.; Problems of physiology of movements, under the editorship of V. S. Gur-finkel, JI., 1980; Physiology of the movement, under the editorship of V. S. Gurfinkel, etc., JI., 1976, bibliogr.
Yu. A. Fadeyev.