STATE OF HEALTH OF THE POPULATION — complex social and hygienic characteristic of a condition of life activity of the population.
S.'s studying z. the N is carried out as concerning all population of the country, area, edge, the area, the city, and concerning its separate groups (sexual, age, social, professional, etc.). Page z. the N is traditionally estimated by several groups of classical indicators: birth rate (see), including mertvorozhdennost (see), mortality (see) — the general, children's, perinatal, povozrastny, from the separate reasons (see. Child mortality, Maternal mortality, Perinatal mortality); the average duration of the forthcoming life (see Life expectancy); incidences (see) — the general, infectious, noninfectious, professional, chronic nonspecific diseases, separate classes, types and groups of diseases in various age and professional groups of the population, diseases with temporary disability; disability (see), physical development of the population (see. Physical development).
The demographic data characterizing S. z. N, are registered bodies of the state statistics (REGISTRY OFFICE); their profound development, and also a research of their dependence on social and hygienic conditions and socio-economic factors are made by special scientific methods (see. Demographic statistics).
From data of official medical statistics (see Statistics sanitary) it is possible to receive also indicators of incidence of the population (the general, for causes of death; with temporary disability; inf., occupational and other diseases). However they not always are rather full since do not cover all possible sources of information on incidence of the population, reflecting real flows of addresses to specific types of healthcare institutions in the basic and do not contain complete data about associated diseases. Also the possibility of repeated registration of diagnoses is not excluded (they are not reduced as like as two peas). Besides, they are not tied to a certain set of the population. For this reason the most exact data on level and structure of incidence can be received only on the basis of use of special techniques. Carrying out the corresponding researches allows to study tendencies in change not only the general incidences and frequency of emergence of new cases of diseases according to negotiability of the population for to lay down. - the prof. the help, but also in prevalence of these or those (most often hron.) diseases in population. The last receive after correction of data of negotiability materials of specially performed complex medical inspections of the population.
Data on physical development of the population collect usually by anthropometrical measurements of certain groups of the population (see Anthropometry), to-rye can be made during medical surveys or at special researches. Collected anthropometrical materials are exposed to variatsionnostatistichesky processing (see. Variation statistics) with obligatory division inspected on groups, homogeneous on a sex, age, ethnic and social origin. On the basis of the received results make estimated tables (see. Physical development).
Researches C. z. N gain in our country complex and mass character in the years of carrying out all-Union population censuses (see). Important feature of these works is that they have multi-purpose and profound character, are carried out by a uniform technique and allow to consider many indicators characterizing S. z in interrelation. N.
Value of indicators of S. z is especially big. N for practice of health care. They are the cornerstone of calculations of standards of need of the population for specialized types of medical care, hospital beds, out-patient and polyclinic institutions and medical shots. Leaning on them, define ways of proportional development of health care in various regions of the country. Are widely applied in health care of assessment of a harmony of physical development (a ratio of growth, weight, a circle of a breast taking into account the gender and age characteristics inspected). The standards of physical development used at the same time are the constant working tool of doctors at assessment of results of inspections. Apply also the generalized, integral indicators (indexes) of S. z more and more widely. N. In particular, it is possible to carry such characteristics as average duration of the forthcoming life of the population, Resle's index of health of children of the first year of life to them. Value of comprehensive assessment of S. z. the N immeasurably increases in connection with transition to general medical examination (see) and adoption of the new expanded state program of prevention (see Prevention primary). Indexes C. z are of particular importance. N and indicators of their dynamics.
An opportunity to scientifically consider S.'s essence z. the N in his unity and interrelation with life activity of the person represents dialectic materialism. In the conditions of steadily increasing social value of health inherent to socialism, impact assessment on health of the population in general and each individual separately of various factors is of great importance: social, biological, material, spiritual, etc. The significant role belongs to identification of impact on public health of the social and geographical environment and studying of the new adaptation and biological relationship which appeared in the conditions of a scientific and technological revolution between a human body and external factors.
At the same time it is necessary to remember that among the numerous factors exerting impact on level, dynamics and rates of change of S. z. the N defining finally are socio-economic factors and first of all a way of production of material benefits. K. Marx showed that «... the person by the nature a public being... only in society can develop the true nature, and about force of its nature it is necessary to judge not by force of separate individuals, and by force of all society» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd prod., t. 2, page 146). However conditionality of the state of health of the population social and economic living conditions does not belittle value of biological patterns, on to-rye these conditions influence. It should be noted that between the state of health and changes of social and economic living conditions of the population it is illogical to assume existence of direct, direct and universal dependence. Formation of optimum health of the population includes a set interconnected social, hygienic, economic, medical and organizational, etc. actions that defines need at management of these processes to use cybernetic methods of the analysis. If until recently researchers considered only feedforwards between cause and effect, then now for the accounting of all factors influencing the level of health of the population it is necessary, without being limited to identification of linear (direct) bonds, to address the multifactorial analysis.
From stated above it is visible that the concept of health of the population is the integrative characteristic consisting of data of social hygiene, economy, demography, psychology. At the same time social hygiene studies S. z. N in continuous communication with the public relations; the economy considers it as a necessary component of social production; demography investigates at S.'s studying z. N quantitative and qualitative changes in structure and the movement of the population; the psychology studies patterns and forms of mental activity and behavior of people taking into account their health.
A lot of work is carried out in the direction of development of complex, integral indicators of health of the population worldwide now, to-rye often call «indexes of health». WHO began to deal with this problem, having published the status report of «national planning of health in developing countries» in 1967. In 1970 WHO was carried out a discussion on a problem «statistical indicators for planning and assessment of programs of health care». On the basis of rich previous experience works in this direction and in our country are carried out. Around the world works on search of indicators of public health develop, on the one hand, as researches of interrelations of average life expectancy and incidence of the population, on the other hand, are directed to development of indexes, to-rye it would be possible to use as criteria of efficiency of programs for development of health care. Characteristic feature of these works is their excessive mathematization. In the extensive literature devoted to questions of complex assessment of S. z. to N and designing of indexes of its sanitary status, requirements to their development are in detail discussed. In the opinion formulated by WHO they shall be unified, standardized, stable, sensitive, universal, rather simple for calculations and shall be measured by units of metric or any other system.
One of the most important conditions of increase in level C. z. the N is constantly increasing material and cultural level of the people, the state character of actions for public health care (see the Legislation on health care). The CPSU and the Soviet government, being guided by the humanistic principles in the solution of problems of public health care, see in increase in potential of public health one of essential conditions of blossoming of economy and society in general.
See also Health care, Environmental control, Labor protection, the Socialist way of life.
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S. A. Leonov.