STAGES of MEDICAL EVACUATION — the collective name of the medical aid stations or medical institutions developed on the ways of evacuation for reception, the medical sorting struck and patients, rendering to them medical care, treatment and preparation them to further evacuation.
Expansion of medical institutions on delivery roads and evacuation gained in Russia regular character in the second half of 18 century. In days of the Great Patriotic War the main E. m e. were: regimental medical aid station (see) — PMP, on Krom gave the first medical assistance (see); divisional medical aid station (see. Medical and sanitary battalion) — DMP where the qualified medical care was provided; institutions of hospital bases (see. Hospital base) — GB of armies, fronts and the internal region of the country where carried out the specialized help (see System of medical and evacuation providing). In a crust, time the main stages of medical evacuation are called: medical aid
station of a regiment — MPP; detached medical battalion (omedb), separate medical group (see) — OMO; GB medical institutions. The first stage of medical evacuation can be considered also the medical aid station of battalion (MASB) if it is developed
for work on site (see. Battalion medical aid station).
Irrespective of the place and a role in system of stage treatment E. m e. carry out the following main objectives: reception, registration, medical sorting arriving struck and patients; carrying out according to indications of their special processing (see); rendering medical aid in a certain volume, treatment of the nek-ry contingents struck and patients before recovery; preparation for evacuation; isolation with the subsequent direction inf. patients in inf. hospital.
Everyone E. m e. it is developed on the basis of the uniform schematic diagram (see fig.). In structure E. m e.
Fig. Schematic diagram of a stage of medical evacuation.
(except MPB, MPP) the following functional divisions, as a rule, enter: reception and classifying sections — for reception struck and patients, their medical sorting and registration; special processing — for carrying out special processing; departments for rendering medical aid to victims (dressing, operational, antishock, chamber of an intensive care, etc.); insulators, hospital departments — for hospitalization; evacuation departments, diagnostic divisions — laboratory, X-ray department; besides, offices physiotherapeutic, dental to lay down. physical cultures, and also drugstore. On E. m e. also management with the communication center, the dining room, warehouses, power plant are provided; on the platform E. m e. the parking of motor transport, access roads («transport loops») are equipped; rooms for staff; near a stage the platform for landing of airplanes and helicopters is created. The arrangement of divisions of stages of medical evacuation shall ensure their most accurate and effective functioning, including throughput system, reduction of the ways of transfer struck between functional divisions, an exception of counterflows.
AA. m e. it has to be developed near delivery roads and evakua-
tion, whenever possible away from objects of probable blows of the opponent; at the choice of the area existence of local housing stock, water sources, conditions of natural masking are considered. Choice of the place of expansion E. m e. it is specified during medical investigation (see. Medical investigation). On the ways conducting to E. m e., establish the indexes («piketazhny signs») seen day and night. At the stage functional divisions and roads to them are designated. For protection against influence of weapon of the opponent stages of medical evacuation whenever possible are located in special protective constructions, shelters, shelters, a podva
la of buildings, and tents bury to the earth.
Removal E. m e. from troops is defined by conditions of a fighting and medical situation, road condition, and also an opportunity to timely render medical aid struck and the patient. For ensuring speed of expansion of stages of medical evacuation first of all the functional divisions providing reception arriving and rendering medical aid to them, later hospital and evacuation divisions are equipped.
The main E. m e. on the fleet posts and points of medical aid of the ships and parts of the Navy are (see. Medical aid station, medical aid station of the ship), hospital vessels (see) and GB medical institutions. Functionality of everyone E. m e. on the fleet are defined by conditions of a ship situation and existence on them the regular or given forces and means of medical service. Depending on a rank of the ship and number of staff on it the paramedic, the doctor of the general qualification or the specialist doctor can head medical service that defines a type of medical care at a ship stage of medical evacuation. So, on sea trawlers only pre-medical medical care is provided; on destroyers and the anti-submarine ships — kvalifitsiro-
bathing medical aid; by the ships of the first and second rank — qualified and separate types of specialized medical aid. On submarines the medical service is headed by the doctor-surgeon. On points of medical care of coastal parts of the fleet there is the first medical and in some cases the qualified medical aid; in to lay down. institutions of naval bases, flotillas and hospital bases — the qualified and specialized help.
Features E. m e. on the fleet are: an arrangement of posts of medical aid in close proximity to places of formation of sanitary losses; difficulties of evacuation struck and patients from the ship that often forces to perform treatment on site after rendering to victims the qualified medical care. The volume of medical aid depends on a situation.
The system of medical and evacuation providing in Civil protection is limited to two stages of medical evacuation: group of first aid (see) and the hospital base (see) representing set to lay down. the institutions developed in a country zone. At the first stage rendering struck and the patient of the first medical assistance with elements of the qualified help is provided (according to urgent indications). At the second stage the qualified and specialized medical aid and hospitalization struck and patients till the defined outcomes is provided (see. Health service of Civil protection).
See also Hospital base, Sorting medical, Evacuation medical, Stage treatment. Bibliography: August Not And.
Help to wounded in modern sea battle, Morsk. doctor, July-dekarb, 1912; Beletsky V. P. and d river. The guide to treatment of the combined radiation defeats at stages of medical evacuation, M., 1982; Military-medical preparation under the editorship of F. I. Komarov, M., 1984; D and r and N I am a N T. M.,
Zvyagin A. A. and Tsitov-s to and y Yu. I. Anesteziya and resuscitation at stages of medical evacuation, M., 1984; Treatment of victims with injuries of a breast and stomach at stages of medical evacuation, under the editorship of B. D. Komarov and
A. P. Kuzmicheva, M., 1979; The Guide
to treatment burned at stages of medical evacuation, under the editorship of V. K. Sologub, M., 1979; The Guide to Health service of Civil protection, under the editorship of A. I. Burnazyan; M, 1983; She
V. I st. Medical and evacuation providing Navy in wartime, L., 1939.
B. A. Zhuravsky, I. P. Leads, G. P. Lobanov; G. P. Donchenko (E. m e. on the fleet).