SRI LANKA, the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka — the state in the Southern Asia located on the lake of Sri Lanka in Indium
the sky ocean. Till 1972 — Ceylon (island and the state). Enters the Commonwealth (it is shaven.). Area 65,6 you page of sq.km. The population apprx. 14,9 million people (a census of 1981). The capital — Colombo (apprx. 700 thousand zhit.). In atm. relation of Sh.-L. it is divided into 9 provinces, the last — into 24 areas. Ofits. languages — Sinhalese and Tamil.
The head of state — the president, it is chief executive and the commander-in-chief of armed forces. The supreme legislative body — unicameral parliament.
Coast of the island preferential low lagunny. St. 80% of the territory occupy plains. The climate is monsoonal, on S. and V. — subequatorial, on Yu. and 3. — equatorial. Natural vegetation covers apprx. 3/4 surfaces of the island.
Sh.-L. — the agrarian country with the developed plantatsionny economy. In agriculture it is engaged apprx. 70% of the working population. The main export cultures — tea, rubber, coconut. The main food crop — rice (needs of the country are satisfied only for 65 — 75%). From other food crops grow up millet, corn, bean, batata, cassavas, vegetables, from fruit — bananas, pineapples. The livestock production is developed poorly.
In the industry the small, including handicraft enterprises prevail; separate large enterprises are concentrated by hl. obr. in public sector. The basis of public sector is made by the enterprises constructed by means of the USSR and about a half of all industrial output falls to their share. The traditional industries of manufacturing industry — tea, processing of rubber, a copra and piririma oil. The tourism which is the considerable income item is developed.
St. 80% of the population are made by the Sinhaleses, St. 13% — Tamils; also Moors, Malayans, burghers, vedda live. Age groups
up to 15 years in 1978 made 39% of all population. In 1980 (according to estimated data) for 1000 us. birth rate made 27,6, mortality — 6,1; child mortality — 37,1 for 1000 live-born (1978). The average duration of the forthcoming life in 1971 — 1981 — apprx. 68 years.
In structure of incidence infectious and parasitic diseases prevail. Most often are registered malaria, fight about a cut continues to remain one of important problems of health care of the country, an enterita, amoebic dysentery, a typhoid and parati-fa, a viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, tick-borne and mosquito encephalitis, syphilis, gonorrhea, and also a dochmiasis and other helminthoses. The leprosy, a dengue, tetanus, rage, and also measles, whooping cough and other nurseries inf is registered. diseases. In 1980 on 100 000 us. number of the hospitalized patients apropos inf. and parasitic diseases made 2065,4, concerning diseases of cardiovascular system — 617,4.
Pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia, myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary heart and other diseases of the blood circulatory system, the remote effects of injuries, poisonings and influences of toxicants, cerebrovascular diseases, not precisely designated intestinal infections and other diseases of digestive organs, prematurity were the main reasons for death among the hospitalized patients (1980).
Responsibility for the organization and activity of health services is assigned to Min-in of health care, to-rogo are a part: department of health services, management of group of BC and health protection of a family, department of Ayurveda, etc. The department of health services is headed by the director, 5 deputies — directors of services are subordinated to Krom (medical, public health care, laboratory, administrations, planning). The island is divided on 16 medical - a dignity. regions, of everyone the director of health services who directs regional services by means of chief physicians of hospitals of provinces is at the head. Medical - a dignity. regions are divided into 102 zones, the medical inspector is at the head of everyone. In everyone medical - a dignity. the region would be available basic on 200 — 250 beds, or regional-tsa the general type on 50 — 150 beds, or both types of BC. In each zone of health care headed by the chief physician there is a full or incomplete peripheral health service. The full service includes point of health care, delivery room, approximately on 20 beds, and hospital department of the general type on 25 beds. The incomplete peripheral service can have only point of health care, or point of health care and delivery room, or hospital department of the general type; most of them is staffed by average medics.
The department of Ayurveda (traditional system of medicine) is headed by the director. In Sh.-L. there are 5 BCs and 3 out-patient clinics, to-rye are staffed by doctors. In the private sector
about 10 thousand doctors applying methods of traditional medicine are registered (see Ayurveda).
In 1981 in Sh.-L. stationary help was given in 488 medical institutions having 44 029 beds (29,3 beds on 10 000 us.), including 29 provincial and basic-tsakh on 16 112 beds, 209 points of health care and rural-tsakh on 16 088 beds (are headed by doctors), 102 medical centers on 1127 beds (are headed by medical assistants), 125 maternity homes on 3550 beds, the nursery-tse on 614 beds, infectious-tse on 301 beds, 3-tsakh on 1278 beds (including sanatoria) for TB patients, 2 psychiatric-tsakh on 2920 beds, 2 leper colonies on 393 beds, ophthalmologic-tse on 471 beds, dental-tse on 42 beds, oncological-tse on 462 beds and 11 others-tsakh on 671 beds. According to estimated data, to public sector 60% of medical institutions, belong to the private sector — 40%.
Vnebolnychny help is given in out-patient departments of BC, points of health care, private medical practitioners and doctors of department of Ayurveda. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of Sh.-L. not always corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
Much attention is paid to providing the population with high-quality drinking water and construction of places of public use.
In Sh.-L. in 1981 1964 doctors worked (1,29 on 10 000 us.), 269 stomatologists, 499 druggists, 7040 nurses, 3273 midwifes, 4883 assistants to nurses, 916 inspectors and other personnel of health care.
Training of doctors is carried out on a medical f-takh of high fur boots in the cities of Colombo and Peradeniya, the term of training of 5 years. The paramedical staff is prepared at sisterly and other special schools.
Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 226, Geneva, WHO, 1981; World health statistics annual 1984, Geneva, 1984.
E. V. Galakhov.