SPORTS MEDICINE — the industry of medicine studying influence of physical culture and sport on health, physical development and functionality of an organism.
The page of m along with other industries of medicobiological sciences makes a natural-science basis of the Soviet system of physical training of the population and development of sport in the USSR. The main objective of S. of m — to promote rational use of means and methods of physical culture and sport for harmonious development of the person, strengthening of his health, increase in working capacity, extension of the active period of life. The village of m helps to prove methods of a sports training and to increase sports skill. S.'s problems of m include medicobiological justification of obligatory programs of physical training of pupils of preschool, school, secondary technical educational institutions and students of higher education institutions; development of medical aspects of mass physical culture of the different contingents of the population; improvement of system of training of athletes, development of methods of assessment of a condition of their fitness and acceleration of recovery processes after exercise stresses; improvement of a technique of medical control in the course of exercises and sport; studying of an etiology, pathogeny, diagnosis patol. the states connected with irrational exercises and sport, development on this basis of questions of prevention and treatment. Medical control (see) in the USSR is the practical section C. of m.
The main scientific directions C. of m — experimental and physiological researches, the analysis and synthesis of purposeful medical overseeing by influence on an organism of physical exercises and sport, experienced and experimental check of results of scientific research in actual practice sports activity, theoretical development of the major medicobiological problems of physical training and sport. Along with special techniques and methodical inclusion in S. of m methods of physiology and biochemistry, and also a wedge, disciplines are widely used.
The ideas of physical training began to get into medicine in 19 century. The separate researches devoted to influence of physical exercises on a human body were conducted by Yu. V. Blazhevich, M. E. Gruzdev, I. I. Krivyakin. Founders of statement of a problem of physical training as means of improvement of broad masses of the population were P. F. Lesgaft and V. V. Gorinevsky.
After Great October socialist revolution the Soviet system of physical training of the population as an integral part of formation and development of a socialist way of life was created (see), for a cut first of all the recreational orientation is characteristic. In 1923 the first department of medical control was organized at Moscow in-those physical culture, to-ruyu V. E. Ignatyev headed. In 1922, 1924, 1928 under the leadership of V. V. Gorinevsky mass medical examinations of the athletes participating in sports festivals were for the first time conducted. Results of these inspections are generalized in the book «Medical Research of Athletes» (1931). The first grants according to S. of m for doctors were published this period: «Guide to medical control of physical development» (G. K. Birzin and V. V. Gorinevsky 1925), «Technique of anthropometrical researches» (V. V. Bunak, 1925), «Scientific and medical control over physical development» (B. A. Ivanovsky, 1927), etc.
In the late thirties and the beginning of the 40th in connection with the increased scope of the sports movement scientific activity in the area C. of m extended. The resolution of the Central Election Commission of the USSR (1930) to health care assigned the organization and implementation of medical control of all sports work, studying of physical culture as social and hygienic factor. In 1931 the department of physical culture in TsIU led by B. A is organized. Ivanovsky, in 1936 created the country's first research laboratories of medical control in the Moscow and Ukrainian research in-t of physical culture, in 1937 — department of medical control in the Leningrad scientific research institute of physical culture.
The present stage of development of S. of m is closely connected with a name C. P. of Years at is new, to-ry for the first time in the 30th formulated S.'s problems of m as independent on uchny a distsa of an ilina, defined its bonds with other sections of medicine, proved methodological and methodical bases of medical control. S. P. Logunov defined the main scientific directions, fundamental and applied problems C. of m which were widely developed by the school run by it for several decades and kept until now the value. They include medicobiological aspects of development of fitness and endurance; power training of athletes, etiological and pathogenetic factors of an overtraining, etc. Under its management the system of comprehensive examination of the persons playing physical culture and sports, in vitro and in the conditions of trainings was developed. For examination of sports working capacity and medical rehabilitation, and also for maintaining the wedge, researches on the basis of the sector of sports medicine of All-Union scientific research institute of physical culture directed by S. P. Letunov in the 40th was created a wedge, a hospital for athletes, by an example to-rogo specialized departments in large medical and sports clinics of the country were organized further.
S. P. Letunov and his pupils made a serious contribution to studying of problems of «sports heart», hypoxias in the light of problems of sport, immunological, age aspects of recreational influence of physical culture and sport.
In process of development of physical culture and sport on the basis of scientific research institute and problem laboratories, departments of higher education institutions, and also the network of medical and sports clinics organized in 1950 the volume of the scientific research devoted to medicobiological problems of physical culture and sport extends.
In 1952 the Soviet athletes for the first time took part in summer Olympic Games (see) that caused considerable expansion of scope of researches on medical aspects of a sports training. In connection with a considerable intensification of the training loads which are followed by extreme physical and emotional pressure the problem of adaptation, in particular its individual manifestations is strenuously developed. On this basis the technique of assessment of the general and special efficiency of athletes is improved, criteria of sports selection and orientation are developed.
Throughout 60 — the 70th under the leadership of A. G. Dembo questions of prepathology and pathology in sport are actively developed. The new concepts concerning them an etiology, a pathogeny move forward, methods of timely diagnosis, medical rehabilitation, recovery of sports working capacity are offered. In recent years patterns of dynamics immunol are studied. reactivity of an organism depending on character of training loads, the measures preventing decrease in immunity at an extreme tension are developed.
The essential contribution to the solution of problems C. of m is made medical research and educational in-you Moscow, Leningrad and federal republics. In 1968 the special department of sports medicine in State the central institute of physical culture of the Order of Lenin was created.
Differentiation and integration of scientific knowledge are characteristic of the present stage of development of S. of m, on a basis to-rykh its separate sections — sports cardiology, endocrinology, traumatology form, to-rykh the significant contribution brought L. A. Butchenko, E. A. Vira in development, N. D. Grayevskaya, Yu. I. Danko, A. G. Dembo, B. L. Karpman, S. P. Letunov, 3. S. Mironova, etc. Development of C. by m it is closely connected with achievements of other industries of medicobiological science (physiology of sport, biochemistry of sport, morphology, hygiene) and with pedagogics that reflects complex character of sports science.
The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About further rise in mass character of physical culture and sport» (1981) provided considerable expansion of scientific and practical work and sports and recreational actions among all categories of the population (see. Physical culture and sport ).
S.'s development by m was promoted by the Section of medical control at Scientific and methodical council of Committee on affairs of physical culture and sport reorganized in 1963 into Federation of sports medicine of the USSR; S. P. Letunov was its first chairman. In 1952 she entered the International federation of sports medicine (FIMS); the Soviet scientists take active part in work of FIMS and are a part of its governing bodies.
The scientists and doctors who are engaged in S. in m are integrated in All-Union, republican and city about-va on physiotherapy exercises and sports medicine. In 1972 began the activity at Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences problem council «Medical problems of physical culture and sport» with three problem commissions. Problems C. of m are discussed at all-Union and republican congresses, conferences and symposiums, and also with the assistance of the Soviet specialists at similar forums in the socialist countries. Scientists of the USSR participate in the international congresses according to S. of the m organized by FIMS and also in the world scientific congresses «Sport in modern society», to-rye were twice led to the USSR (in 1974 — in Moscow; in 1980 — in Tbilisi). In 1958 in Moscow the Anniversary XII International congress on sports medicine was carried out.
Problems C. of m are covered in numerous grants and monographs, collections of scientific works, materials of conferences and symposiums, in magazines «Theory and Practice of Physical Culture», «Cardiology», «Clinical Medicine», etc.
Bibliography: Aulik I. V. Definition of physical effeciency in clinic and sport, M., 1979, bibliogr.; The t have B h e N to about L. A., To at sh and to about in with to and y M. S. and Zhuravlev of N. B. Distrofiya of a myocardium at athletes, M., 1980, bibliogr.; Questions of sports cardiology, under the editorship of R. D. Dibner, D., 1977; Medical and physiological section of sports selection and orientation, sost. R. E. Motylyanskaya, M., 1977; Gorkin M. Ya., To and h about - rovsky O. V. iyevgenyevat. Ya. Big loadings in sport, Kiev, 1973; Grayevskaya N. D. Influence of sport on cardiovascular system, M., 1975; Danko Yu. I. Sketches of physiology of physical exercises, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Dembo A. G. Urgent problems of modern sports medicine, M., 1980; Children's sports medicine, under the editorship of S. B. Tikhvinsky and S. V. Khrushchev, M., 1980, bibliogr.; Diseases and damages at sports activities, under the editorship of A. G. Dembo, L., 1970, bibliogr.; Value and assessment of simple methods of a medical research of athletes in the light of data of modern science, under the editorship of A. N. Vorobyov, Malakhovka, 1980; Ivanov S. M. Medical control and physiotherapy exercises, M., 1970, bibliogr.; Karpman V. L. Use of the theory of automatic control in sports medicine, M., 1979; To at to about l e in - sky G. M. and Grayevskaya N. D. Fundamentals of sports medicine, M., 1971, bibliogr.; S. P. flyers. Electrocardiographic and rentgenokimografi-chesky researches of heart of the athlete, M., 1957; Motylyanskaya R. E. and E r at with and l and m with to and y L. A. Medical control during the mass sports and recreational work, M., 1980; M at r and - in about in I. V. Physical culture and active longevity, M., 1979; Problems of sports medicine, book 1 — 2, M., 1974 — 1975; Problems of sports medicine, under the editorship of V. V. Matov, M., 1979, bibliogr.; Sports medicine, under the editorship of V. L. Karpmana, M., 1980; T and x-vinsky S. B., etc. Physical effeciency and indicators of cardiorespiratory system at children and teenagers of 8 — 15 years, in book: The person and Wednesday, under the editorship of 3. I. Barbashova, page 166, L., 1975; Tumanyan G. S. and Martirosov E. G. Teloslozheniye and sport, M., 1976, bibliogr.; Khrushchev S. V. Medical control of physical training of school students, M., 1980, bibliogr.; Chogovadze A. V. and Round M. M. Medical control of physical training in sport, M., 1977; Echocardiographic researches of heart at athletes, under the editorship of N. D. Grayevskaya, etc., M., 1980.
R. E. Motylyanskaya.