SPORTS CONSTRUCTIONS — specially constructed and equipped constructions providing holding educational and training occupations and competitions in different types of physical culture and sport.
According to the Constitution of the USSR, decisions of the XXVI congress of the CPSU and the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About further rise in mass character of physical culture and sport» (1981) in our country mass construction of S. of page according to standard projects is carried out, planning and S.'s design by the village improves, new materials and designs are created and implemented into sports construction. In 1983 in the USSR there was a St. 3,7 thousand stadiums with stands on 1,5 thousand and more places, 106 thousand football fields, 75 thousand gyms, more than 21 thousand swimming pools, apprx. 40 thousand shooting galleries. On the basis of these S. 28 million people can be engaged in page at the same time.
Villages consider by the first S. Ancient Greek stadiums, construction to-rykh was carried out since 8 century BC in the cities of Olympia, Miletus, Athens, etc. Unique S. were created by page in Ancient Rome (The Colosseum, Gippodr, etc.). These architectural monuments of the past and in a crust, time strike with the greatness and scales. E.g., in the Colosseum in the stone stands could take place apprx. 50 thousand viewers, stands of Gippodrom intending for competitions in driving chariots contained up to 250 thousand persons. The oval form of stands of the Colosseum was a prototype of stands of modern Olympic stadiums.
In the Middle Ages the Olympic Games were prohibited by Catholic church, S. were destroyed by page and for a long time their construction was almost not carried out.
Mass construction of sports constructions in various countries of Europe began only at the end of 19 century in connection with emergence of sports clubs and societies, development of the international sports relations.
Growth and improvement of sports construction is reflected first of all in creation of the Olympic sports constructions. To holding the Olympic Games (see), starting with the first (Athens. 1896), often unique S.' construction by the village differing in modern architectural planning solutions precedes. E.g., sports constructions 0limpiady-80, carried out to the USSR, on a class, architecture, equipment by the modern equipment, to conveniences meet the most strict international requirements and differ in original architectural concepts (e.g., a bicycle track in Krylatskoye, the sports Olympic complex, largest in Europe, with indoor stadium on 45 thousand viewers and the swimming pool, the universal gym «Friendship»).
Villages of the village divide on separate, intended for occupations and one sport competitions, and complex, intended for occupations and several sports competitions. Complex S.'s example of page is the Central stadium of V. I. Lenin in Moscow, on sports arenes to-rogo there took place opening and closing of the XXII Olympic Games, soccer, track and field athletics, gymnastics, volleyball, judo and water polo competitions 0limpiady-80.
On a space-planning design distinguish the pages opened and covered by S. Open S. pages allow to give educational and training classes and outdoor competitions. Among the pages covered by S. gyms and swimming pools are most widespread. Gyms — rooms up to 1200 m 2 , in to-rykh educational and training sports classes or competitions in one (specialized halls) or several (universal halls) to sports are held. Pools for swimming, and also for a diving and water polo represent the covered squared artificial reservoir with the corresponding equipment and devices for bathing, educational and training occupations and competitions.
Gigabyte. requirements to S. of page are based on need of creation of conditions, the most favorable for the occupations physical culture and sport promoting increase in working capacity, improvement of health, physical development of athletes and growth of their sporting achievements. They are regulated by «Health regulations of the device and the maintenance of places of classes in physical culture and sport» (1976).
In total S. are subject to page to sanitary inspection (see). Precautionary dignity. supervision is exercised by SES in the course of design, constructions and S.'s reconstruction by the village, and flowing — during their operation.
Construction and S.'s accommodation by the village is provided by master plans of building of the inhabited places. Villages of the village place in the territory of the cities or in a residential suburb near gardens, parks and other green plantings, from the windward side from contaminating air and the soil of objects taking into account sanitary protection zones (see). Villages of the village shall be removed from sources of noise and thoroughfares, are protected from external noise by wood plantings and the artificial shielding constructions, to have convenient approaches to stops of public transport.
In S. pages shall be sufficient and uniform natural and artificial lighting (see), optimum microclimate (see), effective ventilation (see); it is necessary to watch for a dignity. maintenance of places of occupations and other rooms, and also observance dignity. requirements to the equipment. For swimming pools special importance is represented by performance of actions for recirculation, cleaning and to disinfecting of water (see), and also careful disinfection of rooms. Besides, observance of rules is controlled personal hygiene (see) as the playing physical culture and sport, and service personnel.
See also Physical culture and sport .
Bibliography: Bulgakov A. M. and And in An about in V. I. The elementary swimming pools, M., 1977, bibliogr.; Laptev A. P. and M and N x A. A. Gigiyena of physical culture and sport, M., 1979; M and N x A. A. Sketches on hygiene of physical exercises and sport, M., 1980, bibliogr.; P about l and e in with to and y S. A. Hygienic aspects of modern sports constructions, M., 1981, bibliogr.; Sports constructions, under the editorship of Yu. A. Gagin, M., 1976.
S. A. Poliyevsky.