From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SPOROUS AEROBES (Greek aer air + b[ios] life) — the aerobic bacteria forming disputes.

Page and. are integrated in this. Bacillaceae, the sort Bacillus consisting of 22 accurately differentiated types and 26 provisional, subject to further studying.

Page and. — rhabdoid, gram-positive bacteria; sometimes, in an initial stage of growth, separate types of a gramotritsatelna; form heat-resistant disputes (see) in aerobic conditions. From all S. and. a strict aerobiosis only nek-ry types (oxidizing) at the others metabolism enzymatic or oksidativno-enzymatic possess. It defines ability of many types of S. and. grow in an agar in anaerobic conditions. S.'s most and. — mesophylls, with an optimum temperature of height of 30 °. Distinguish also thermophilic types (see. Thermophilic bacteria) developing at more high temperature and psychrophile (see. Cryophilic bacteriums ), growing at lower temperature. Contents guanine + tsitozin as a part of DNA fluctuates in wide limits (32 — 62 mol of %). Type-species of a sort — Bacillus subtilis («graceful»). The Russian synonym of this term «hay bacterium» has only historical interest and in scientific literature is not used. For medicine Bac matter. anthracis — the activator malignant anthrax (see), Bac. cereus with Bac biooption. thuringiensis — activators of food toxicoinfection (see. Toxicoinfections food ) and Bac. polymyxa — a producer of antibiotics (see. Polymyxins ).

Page and. produce a catalase, at fermentation of glucose produce acid and methyl-acetyl carbinol, hydrolyze casein and gelatin. Bac. anthracis is characterized by lack of mobility, hemolysis, a reduction of methylene blue and litmus milk, weak letsitinazny activity, sensitivity to 10 pieces/ml of penicillin. With a growth in broth almost does not stir up Wednesdays and forms a film on a surface; it is capable to develop in the thickness of an agar in anaerobic conditions. Bac. cereus («wax-like») is formative in anaerobic conditions in the presence of glucose or nitrites. In broth forms diffusion opacification and sometimes a gentle ring-shaped film, has hemolitic and letsitinazny activity. Bac. thuringiensis differs from Bac. cereus existence of the crystal intracellular educations revealed by special methods of coloring. It is characterized by high pathogenicity for larvae of nek-ry insects — wreckers of agriculture and applied to fight against them (drugs dendrobatsillin, enterobakterin). Bac. cereus, as well as Bac. thuringiensis, potentially pathogenic microbes are also capable to cause food toxicoinfection under certain conditions. Catabolic processes at reproduction of Bac. cereus, characterized by active proteolysis, especially violently proceed in meat and fish products. As a result of proteolysis and the subsequent decarboxylation of amino acids in a product the toksamina (e.g., a histamine) sensibilizing collect went. - kish. a path and promoting emergence of food toxicoinfection.

Many S. and. in the course of sporogenesis produce the autolysins dissolving own vegetative cells, and antibiotics. The most active producer of an antibiotic is Bac. polymyxa («multimucous»). The antibiotic formed by it polymyxin is applied at treatment of the diseases caused by gram-negative bacteria and at preparation of mediums to preferential allocation of gram-positive bacteria due to braking of gram-negative bacteria, from to-rykh only a protea of a rezistentna to polymyxin. Main differential signs of Bac. polymyxa — fermentation of glucose with formation of gas, fermentation of xylose and a mannitol.

Bibliography: Methods of a sanitary and microbiological research of objects of the environment, under the editorship of G. I. Sidorenko, page 73, etc., M., 1978; Sazonova L. II. and d river. Bacteria of the sort Bacillus and their pathogenicity for laboratory animals and the person, in book: Aktualn. vopr. a pathogeny and to lay down. intestinal infections, under the editorship of A. F. Bilibin and H. M. Gracheva, page 43, M., 1978; Sanitary microbiology, under the editorship of G. P. Guelder-rose and G. N. Chistovich, page 162, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. E. Buchanan a. N. E. Gibbons, p. 529, Baltimore, 1974; Cowan S. T. a. Steel K. Manual for the identification of medical bacteria, Cambridge, 1965, bib-liogr.; Identification methods; for microbiologists, ed. by B. M. Gibbs a. D. A. Shap-ton, pt B, L., 1968.

G. Kalina.