From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SPONGIOBLASTOMA POLAR (spongioblastoma; Greek spongia a sponge + blastos a sprout, a germ + - oma: synonym primitive polar spongioblastoma) — malignant tumor of the central nervous system.

The term «polar spongioblastoma» is disputable, repeatedly refused it as from outdated and in domestic literature, in a crust, time it is not accepted. However in the International histologic classification of tumors of c. the N of page is again entered the term «primitive polar spongioblastoma» for designation of malignant tumors of a macroglial row.

The page of the item makes, according to different researchers, 3,7 — 7,1% of all gliomas and 1,5 — 1,7% of all tumors of c. N of page. It is observed at children's and youthful age.

Preferential localization of S. of the item — visual decussation, a thalamus, a mesencephalon, a bottom of the fourth ventricle, varoliyev the bridge (the bridge of a brain, T.), cerebellum, cerebral hemispheres, spinal cord.

Fig. 1. Macrodrug of a polar spongioblastoma of a varoliyev of the bridge and a hemisphere of a cerebellum (a frontal section through a brainstem and a cerebellum): 1 — a hemisphere of a cerebellum; 2 — a tumor; 3 — varoliyev the bridge.
Fig. 2. Microdrug of a polar spongioblastoma: the cells of a spindle-shaped form with oval and round kernels creating bunches are visible (are specified by shooters); coloring hematoxylin-eosine; x 200.

S. is macroscopic the item has an appearance of well delimited node of white or white-gray color of a dense consistence (fig. 1), is frequent with cysts, is more rare with the centers of hemorrhages on a section. S. is microscopic the item consists of the spindle-shaped extended cells (spongioblasts) with the oval or round light kernels containing a large amount of chromatin. Cells are located in parallel, create the bunches of various thickness intertwining in various directions (fig. 2). Mitoses are not numerous. Items are characteristic gidropichesky and mucous dystrophy of cells with vacuolation of cytoplasm of S. It is a little blood vessels in a tumor, proliferation of an endothelium is not observed.

On the gistol. to S.'s structure of the item it can be similar to spindle-shaped and cellular sarcoma. In a differential morfol. diagnosis of these tumors is helped by impregnation by a method Ramón-and-Kakhalya (see. Ramón-and-Kakhalya methods ), and also impregnation by silver (see. Silverings methods ). At impregnation by a method Ramón-and-Kakhalya in case of S. items come to light typical uni - and bipolar spongioblasts, cells of spindle-shaped and cellular sarcoma are not impregnated. Difficulties can arise at differential diagnosis of S. of the item with fibrillar astrocytomas (see), especially at their localization in a cerebellum, a brain trunk and day of the third ventricle. During the coloring hematoxylin-eosine C. of the item differs from fibrillar astrocytomas in much more dense arrangement of cells, existence of mitoses, and at impregnation by a method Ramón-and-Kakhalya — existence uni - and bipolar spongioblasts, as gives the grounds for statement morfol. S.'s diagnosis of the item.

Clinical manifestations depend on localization of a tumor and degree of manifestation of all-brain symptomatology. Often note increase in intracranial pressure (developments of stagnation on an eyeground, headaches, etc.) — see. Hypertensive syndrome .

In detail clinic, treatment and S.'s forecast of the item — see. Brain, tumors .

Bibliography: Pathoanatomical diagnosis of tumors of the person, under the editorship of N. A. Krayevsky, etc., page 484, M., 1982; Smirnov L. I. Tumors of a head and spinal cord, page 23, M., 1962; Cushing H. Intracranial tumors, Springfield, 1932; Russell D. S. a. Rubinstein L. J. Pathology of tumors of the nervous system, p. 125, L., 1963; Z iilch K. J. Histological typing of tumors of the central nervous system, Geneva, 1979; Z ti 1 e h K. J. u. Christensen E. Pathologische Anatomie der raum-beengenden intrakraniellen Prozesse, B., 1956.

T. M. Vikhert.