From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SPLANCHNOLOGY (splanchnologia; Greek splanchna of an interior + logos the doctrine) — the section of anatomy describing development, a structure and topography of internals (interiors) which are carrying out exchange processes of an organism with the environment and also function of reproduction. On the basis of a community of an origin, a structure and function distinguish four systems from them: digestive (systema cligestorium), respiratory (systema respiratorium), uric (organa urinaria) and sexual (organa genitalia); uric and sexual systems are combined, besides, in the urinogenital device (apparatus urogenitalis), or urinogenital system (see).

S.'s maintenance is the description of development of systems of internals in phylogenesis and an embryogenesis, their structure and topography, and also age and sexual distinctions, specific anatomic features, sources of an innervation and blood supply, outflow tracts of blood and a lymph. In to the alimentary system (see) allocate an oral cavity (see. Roth, oral cavity ), pharynx, to a drink (see), gullet (see), stomach (see), intestines (see) and big digestive glands (see. Parotid gland , Liver , Pancreas , Submaxillary gland , Hypoglossal gland ); in to respiratory system (see) — nose (see), throat (see), trachea (see), main bronchial tubes (see) and lungs (see); in uric system — kidneys (see), ureters (see), bladder (see) and urethra (see); in a reproductive system — gonads, female and men's generative organs (see. Vagina , Uterus , Scrotum , Penis , Seed cord , Seed bubbles , Deferent duct etc.). The page gives also the description of the serous covers relating to bodies (see. Bryushina , Pleura ).

Ideas of internals developed long since. Still Hippocrates and Aristotle described many of them. K. Galen allocated digestive organs, breath, generative organs. A. Vezaly described bodies of all four systems. For 17 — 19 centuries new educations were open and details of a structure of bodies (channels, glands, sphincters, intraorganic vascular and nervous educations), etc. are described. In 20 century studying of a segmented structure of parenchymatous bodies, radioanatomies of systems and bodies, their development began. Age and sexual distinctions in a structure of bodies, their specific features were defined.

Development medicine (see) stimulated development S. Tak, in connection with development of operations on lungs there was a need of special studying of anatomy of a root of a lung; with distribution of reconstructive operations on bodies went. - kish. a path — anatomic researches of sources of blood supply, an innervation, outflow tracts of blood, an arrangement of a peritoneum concerning bodies; oncological operations were followed by detailed studying limf, systems, in particular regional limf, nodes. In turn, achievements in the area C. exerted impact on development of medicine. E.g., development of the doctrine about a segmented structure of parenchymatous bodies (lungs, kidneys, a liver) promoted distribution of segmented resections of these bodies.

The page is important in system of medical education since the medicine is differentiated by the organ principle now, e.g. gastroenterology (see), nephrology (see), pulmonology (see), and knowledge of anatomy of bodies has paramount value.

The page is stated in textbooks of anthropotomy and in topografo-anatomic atlases.

See also Anatomy .

Bibliography: Anthropotomy, under the editorship of S. S. Mikhaylov, M., 1973; In e YB e l E. R. Morfologiya of lungs of the person, the lane with English, M., 1970; Volkova O. V. and Baking M. I. Embriogenez and age histology of internals of the person, M., 1976; Zhedenov B. H. Lungs and heart of animals and person, M., 1961; Ivanov G. F. Fundamentals of normal anthropotomy, t. 1, M., 1949; With t and N e to Y. Embriologiya of the person, the lane with slovatsk., Bratislava, 1977; Surgical anatomy of a breast, under the editorship of A. N. Maksimenkov, L., 1955; Surgical anatomy of a stomach, under the editorship of A. N. Maksimenkov, L., 1972; R e p-k about r f E. Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen, Bd 2, Miinchen u. a., 1980.

S. S. Mikhaylov.