SPIROCHETES (Spirochaeta, singular; Greek speira a crinkle, a curl + chaite hair) — thin, gyrose, spiral-shaped one-celled bacteria with one or more rounds.
Page — saprophytes, representatives of normal microflora of animals, the person; pathogens, nek-ry from them, cause in the person inf. diseases (see. Spirokhetoza ). On determinant of bacteria of Berdzhi (1974) of a spirochete are united in an order of Spirochaetales Buchanan 1917, this. Spirochae-taceae Schwellengrebel 1907. In this. Spirochaetaceae enter childbirth of Spirochaeta, Cristispira, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira.
Representatives of various childbirth morphologically differ by the number of curls, length of a cell etc. (tsvetn. fig. 1 — 3). S.'s cells contain the protoplasmatic cylinder surrounded with one or several axial fibrilla, to-rye last along all barrel length and are attached to the disks which are on the ends of the protoplasmatic cylinder. The protoplasmatic cylinder and axial fibrilla are put into an outside cover (periplast). Pages are mobile — rotate around a longitudinal axis, are bent at an angle, move along the spiral. Do not form endospores, gram-negative. Inclusions have Nek-rye S., on a surface cross striation is visible. It is better for page to investigate in the phase-contrast microscope or in a dark field of sight (see. Dark field method ). Can be aerobes, facultative anaerobes or strict anaerobes; hemogeterotrofa, free living, commensals (see. Commensalism ) or parasites. Nek-ry types pathogens for the person, e.g., Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis (see), Borrelia recurrentis — typhinia (see), Leptospira interrogans — hay fever (see).
The sort Spirochaeta is presented by spiral long cells with blunt ends the sizes 0,2 — 0,75 X 500 microns. The movement happens to the help of axial fibrilla. Contents guanine + tsitozin in their DNA fluctuates from 50 to 66 mol of %. Representatives of a sort — saprophytes, live in the water containing hydrogen sulfide. 5 types of the sort Spirochaeta are described. From them type-species — S. plicatilis — does not grow in pure growth, and 4 look (S. stenostrepta, S. zuelzerae, S. litoralis, S. aurantia) are cultivated. Cells of these 4 types possess two axial fibrilla, one is located near one end, and another — at opposite. Two fibrilla are attached at all types in the central part of a cell. The protoplasmatic cylinder and axial fibrilla at these types are put into a cover or an outside cellular cover. Most of them — strict anaerobes (e.g., S. stenostrepta, S. zuelzerae, S. litoralis), others — facultative anaerobes (e.g., S. aurantia). Ferment glucose to acetic, milk, amber and ant to - t, ethanol, carbonic acid and hydrogen. Seldom found S. zuelzerae does not demand exogenous sources of carbonic acid. Two strains of free living S. of this sort (strains of J4T and J5) — facultative anaerobes; form a yellow-orange pigment, are physiologically similar to S. aurantia, but possess thin correct dense spirals (instead of the wrong spirals typical for S. aurantia).
The sort Cristispira is presented by colossal cells spiralno of a curved form with peculiar reinforced edge of a body in the form of the granular membrane going along a body of a cell (crista). One edge of a crista free, another is attached to a cell. Cytoplasm has well-marked cross striation. Sizes of a cell from 0,5 — 3 to 28 — 150 microns. Has large rough uneven curls. For the person and hematothermal animals representatives of a sort of a nepatogenna. Type-species of a sort — Cr. pectinis. Besides, there is a large number kristispir: Cr. balbianii, Cr. anodontae, Cr. pinnae, Cr. mina, Cr. tenua, etc. All of them, as well as type-species, have a crest along one edge, breed transverse fission (the described longitudinal division is denied). Are found in mollusks and oysters.
Bibliography: Krasilnikov N. A. Determinant of bacteria and actinomycetes, page 722, M. — L., 1949; Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. E. Buchanan a. N. E. Gibbons, p. 167, Baltimore, 1974.
H. M. Ovchinnikov; M. Ya. Korn (tsvetn. fig.)