From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SPERM (Greek. sperma seed) — mix of secrets of testicles and their appendages, and also seed bubbles, a prostate, kupferovy glands and glands of an urethra.

The page begins to be developed during puberty, the maximum secretion is noted at the age of 20 — 30 years, and after 40 years it decreases. In an organism humoral and psychological regulation of education of S. is carried out (see. Spermatogenesis ). S.'s number which is marked out at an ejaculation averages from 2 to 10 ml and depends on the frequency of the repeated sexual intercourses, an exercise stress, the constitution, an emotional state, etc.

S. represents muddy, slightly opalescent sticky liquid with a characteristic smell. Sperm consists of semen, or a spermoplasm, cellular and noncellular elements. Cellular elements of sperm are presented numerous spermatozoa (see), and also spermatogones, spermatids, supporting cells of gyrose seed tubules (Sertoli's cells) which are torn away by epithelial cells of a genital tract. Normal 1 ml of sperm contains 60 — 120 million spermatozoa. Mobile forms among them make 70 — 90%, morphologically full — 75 — 80% and unripe cells spermatogenesis (see) — 2 — 4%. Among noncellular elements distinguish the kernels allocated by a prostate (it is simple; attic crystals), lecithin little bodies, pigmental kernels and fatty inclusions. In the stood S. it is possible to see the typical star-shaped educations which are products of crystallization of spermine (Bettkher's crystals). Relative density of sperm 1028 — 1030, relative viscosity (after fluidifying) 6,45 (at t°20 °), surface intention of 66 dynes/cm (at t°15 °), a freezing point changes depending on storage period of S.: from — 0,56 — 0,58 ° (1 hour) to — 0,74 — 0,78 ° (16 hours).

Normal S. has the following chemical structure: sodium chloride (2 g/l), glucose (3 g/l), fructose (1 — 6 g/l), milk to - that (0,9 — 1 g/l), protein (1,8 g / 100 ml). It is normal of pH of sperm 7,2 — 7,6. Constancy of pH of sperm is explained by presence at it of buffer system from phosphates and carbonates. In S. it is found lemon to - that (citrate), contents a cut can reach 10 mg/ml. There is an assumption that it influences coagulation and fluidifying of Page.

At electrophoretic division of proteins of sperm (see. Electrophoresis ) fractions of albumine (see), alpha, beta and gamma-globulins come to light (see. Globulins ). In S. also polyamines are found: spermine — aliphatic tetramine (average content is normal of 1320 mkg/ml) and spermidine — aliphatic Triominum (the average content is normal of 167 mkg/ml).

From polysaccharides (see) at sperm there are glikozaminoglikana giving to S. viscosity, specific to it. The main power substrate C. is fructose (see).

Among the substances of the lipidic nature which are contained in S. are of special interest prostaglandins (see). Their role is that they influence mobility of spermatozoa and advance of an ovum, sokratitelny activity of a uterus therefore more favorable conditions are created for fertilisations (see).

In S. considerable activity acid and alkaline is defined phosphatases (see), and direct reliable correlation between quantity of motionless spermatozoa in an ejaculate and activity of these enzymes was found. At prostatitis and at a bilateral epididymite in S. noted reduction of activity of phosphatases.

In S., generally in spermatozoa, contains hyaluronidase (see), low activity a cut even more decreases at an oligozoospermia. Besides, in S. activity is found cholinesterases (see), monoamine oxidase (see), diaminoxidases (KF

At a research C. use macroscopic, physical, biochemical and microscopic methods. The result of a complex research C. (ejaculate) is called a spermogram. The Svezhepoluchenny ejaculate is estimated on external signs in the beginning. The secret of testicles macroscopically has an appearance of the large vitreous, viscous educations penetrated by thin white strips. The secret of seed bubbles in a fresh ejaculate reminds sago grains, and then turns into viscous crimped yarns. Prostatic juice has an appearance of watery milk liquid, a secret of kupferovy glands and glands of an urethra — the light droplets lasting threads. At absence in an ejaculate of a secret of testicles he is very liquid (gidrospermiya). The cellular structure of S., mobility of spermatozoa, their resistance study at microscopic examination (in native drug and after coloring). During the biochemical research in S. reveal fructose, phosphatase, lemon to - that, protein fractions; at the same time in blood or in urine determine the content of various hormones (gonadotrophins, androgens, estrogen).

Distinguish the following patol. the states connected with disturbance of structure, quantity and coloring of Page. Total absence of an ejaculate at sexual intercourse is called aspermatism (see). The reasons malformations or cicatricial changes at the level can be of it seminal hillock (see), and also psychological frustration. The spermatogenesis (see) at the same time can be kept that the biopsy of a small egg allows to establish. Trace amount of an ejaculate (less than 1 ml) — an oligospermatism, or a hypospermia — can be the cause of male infertility (see. Infertility ). At azoospermism (see) in an ejaculate there are no spermatozoa, at an aspermia — and other cells of a spermatogenesis. An asthenospermia call oligo-and a hypospermia at considerable contents in S. of motionless spermatozoa. At necrospermias (see) all spermatozoa are not mobile. Constant allocation at an ejaculation of a large amount of sperm (20 — 30 ml) is called a polyspermia. It can not exert negative impact on the impregnating properties C. if it contains enough spermatozoa. At reduction of concentration of spermatozoa in an ejaculate (oligozoospermia) fertilizing capacity of S. goes down. Reddish-brown or rusty color is characteristic of S. with impurity of blood (see. Hemospermia ). Yellow color happens in the presence in S. of pus (piospermiya). Violet or blue color (tsianospermiya) depends on presence at S. of the connections of blue color containing indigotin or on chromogenic cocci.

Sperm in the medicolegal relation. S.'s spots in quality material evidences (see) investigate at investigation of rapes, dissolute actions, a sodomy and others sexual crimes (see). During conducting examination reveal character of a spot and possible accessory of S. to a certain person. By consideration of civil cases about a doubtful paternity (see. doubtful paternity ) and in divorce proceedings make an expert research C. in the liquid state for the solution of a question of ability or inability of the particular person to fertilization. Spots, suspicious on S., can be revealed by means of so-called approximate methods: researches in UV rays (S.'s spots give a bluish-white luminescence), microcrystallic reactions (during the processing of drug Florans's reactant in the presence of S. microcrystals of iodsincaline drop out), the reaction with potato juice based on ability of a spermoplasm to slow down reaction of pasting of erythrocytes of the person potato extract, reactions to the acid phosphatase which is present at Page. These methods are not specific since and at a research of obviously known spot of S. it is possible to receive the negative take caused by a number of the reasons.

The main evidential method of detection of spots of S. is morphological, based on microscopic identification of spermatozoa in the studied spot by means of a number of dyes (erythrosine, methylene blue, fuchsin, etc.)*. Microscopic examination is made directly on the subject carrier or after extraction of spermatozoa from it, e.g., by means of an adhesive cellophane tape. For detection of spermatozoa or died contents of its various sites take in a vagina of the victim on a cotton or gauze plug, and also on slide plates. In case of nondetection of spermatozoa a pestilence foul. by method apply others: identification of protein, characteristic of S. — spermine — method chromatography (see), methods of issue spectral analysis (see), flame photometry (see), etc.

The possibility of accessory of S. to a certain person generally is confirmed by identification in a spot of antigens of the AB0(H) system. At the suspect before it surely define a blood group (see. Blood groups ) and category of a vydelitelstvo (a highlighter, not highlighter), the last is usually established at a research saliva (see). Identification of antigens of the AB0(H) system in S.'s spots is carried out by the same methods, as in spots of blood. In cases when the blood group of the suspect and group C. on clothes of the victim match, and the suspect is not a highlighter of group antigens, draw the conclusion about S.'s origin from other person. The same conclusion is possible and when expressiveness of group antigens of the ABO(H) system in S.'s sample of the suspect is much lower, than in the studied spot. Great difficulties arise during the definition of group accessory of S. in the mixed S.'s spots and blood. For differentiation of group antigens of the AB0(H) system of sperm and blood a number of the methods based on thermal fixation of group antigens of blood in the mixed spots and on the subsequent identification of antigens, only inherent Pages is offered. Apply methods to the same purpose, to-rykh selective extraction of the mixed spots by means of the chemical reagents allowing to extract either blood, or seed antigens of the AB0(H) system is the cornerstone. All these methods demand a large amount of the studied material. Recently the basic possibility of detection in S.'s traces of group isoenzymes, phosphoglucomutases and fosfoglyukonatdegidrogenaza is shown.

Bibliography: Agadshanov N. S. To a question of a research of sperm of the person at infertility, Owls. medical, No. 11, page-136, 1959; Barsegyants L. O. and Levchenko in B. D. Forensic medical examination of allocations of an organism, M., 1978, bibliogr.; B at r N and sh e in and S. A., etc. Modern problems of a spermatogenesis, M., 1982; V. V. and Pavlov A. Hares 3. Ascending chromatography on paper and a thin coat of ion-exchange resin and a possibility of its use at a research of sperm, Court. - medical examination, t. 24, No. 2, page 45, 1981, bibliogr.; 3 and r e the Central Committee and I am E. F. and And h e r to and N. N N. Establishment of availability of sperm in spots reaction of an ingibition of acid phosphatase tartrate, in the same place, t. 23, No. 4, page 33, 1980; To and - and S. A. Patologiya's N of a spermatogenesis, L., 1969, bibliogr.; about N e, Sterility at men, L., 1974; M about l of N and r E. The general spermatology, the lane with it., Budapest, 1969; Porudo Minsk And. M. Infertility at men, L., 1964; Mann T. The biochemistry of semen and of the male reproductive tract, L. — N. Y., 1964, bib-liogr.; Vasterling H. W. Praktische Spermatologie, Stuttgart, 1960.

V. V. Mazin; L. M. Prokhorova (biochemical), V. V. Tomilin (court.).