SPERILLA — bacteria of the sort Spirillum, this. Spirillaceae having the spiral form with one or many rounds.
Enter the sort Spirillum: S. volutans (type-species), S. giesbergeri, S. graniferum, S. anulus, S. metamorphum, S. putridiconchylium, S. itersonii, S. peregrinum, S. serpens, S. sinuosum, S. gracile, S. delicatum, S. polymorphum, S. lunatum, S. minutulum, S. beijerinckii, S. linum, S. japonicum, S. minor. Besides, describe still a significant amount spirill, to-rykh various researchers carry to different types. So, N. A. Krasilnikov describes S. tenue, S. virginianum, S. kutscheri, etc.
Spirilla treat saprophytes, except for Spirillum minor — a disease-producing factor to a sodok (see). Page — inhabitants of fresh and salty reservoirs; meet also in the rotting dead water, dung water, contents of intestines of animals. Diameter and S.'s length vary: diameter is 0,25 — 1,7 microns, length is 2 — 60 microns. Pages are mobile, have a bunch from 3 — 9 flagellums located on one or both poles of a cell. Flagellums in the phase-contrast microscope (see. Phase and contrast microscopy cc) or a dark field of sight (see. Dark field method ) are visible at living S. without coloring. Pages of a grampolozhitelna, a dispute do not form, but at nek-ry types sioropodobny educations are had. Breed transverse fission; cells support them lipoprotein inclusions and coarse grains of metachromatin or volutin. On dense environments with gelatinous, an agar agar, potatoes C. depending on a look granular colonies form large smooth, sometimes. One types form a pigment (red, yellow, chartreuse), others are colourless. Nek-ry types cause fluidifying gelatin. With S.'s growth on a beef-extract broth opacification of the environment is observed. Pages of an indole do not form, nitrates do not recover; optional anaerobe bacterias (see), an optimum of growth — at t ° 30 °. Oksidazopolo-zhitelnye. There are types which are badly growing on artificial mediums; separate types were not received in pure growth, them morfol at all. the characteristic is given only on the basis of microscopic examination (e.g., S. minor — short thick cells with the pointed ends and a bipolar bunch of flagellums).
Bibliography: Krasilnikov N. A. Determinant of bacteria and actinomycetes, page 550, M. — L., 1949; Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. E. Buchanan a. N. E. Gibbons, p. 196, Baltimore, 1974.
H. M. Ovchinnikov.