SPERANSKY Alexey Dmitriyevich (1888 — 1961) — the Soviet pathologist, the academician of AN (1939) and AMN (1944) USSR, the major general of medical service, the winner of the State award USSR (1943) and award of I. P. Pavlov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1937), zasl. scientist of RSFSR (1935). Member of the CPSU.
In 1911 ended medical f-t Kazan un-that. Worked as the territorial doctor in the Penza province. From 1912 to 1914 the prosector of department of normal anatomy medical f-that Kazan un-that. In 1914 — 1918 the surgeon of military hospital, hl. doctor of divisional dressing group. In 1918 the senior prosector of department of normal anatomy medical f-that Kazan un-that. In 1919 the chief physician of clinical military hospital Irkutsk un-that. From 1920 to 1922 professor of department of topographical anatomy and operational surgery Irkutsk un-that. From 1923 to 1928 the employee I. P. Pavlova. Since 1928 the manager. department of a pathophysiology Leningrad in-that experimental medicine, since 1934 the manager. department of the general pathology of VIEM. In 1941 — 1945 A. D. Speransky carried out big scientific and scientific and organizational work on special tasks of the Head military and sanitary department of Red Army in the field of antigas protection. Since 1945 the director Ying-that the general and experimental pathology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, since 1955 the manager. department of the general and experimental pathology Ying-that normal and pathological physiology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.
In early experimental works A. D. Speransky, developing the ideas of a nervosism of I. P. Pavlov, investigated mechanisms of failures of century of N of, development of epilepsy, proved immunopathological understanding of an etiology of a number of defeats of c. N of page A. D. Speransky created the original direction in pathology, revealed the general patterns of development of neurodystrophic processes and their generalization, allocated their main forms.
On the basis of experimental data it put forward the concept about a nervous system as the leading link in mechanisms of a disease, recovery and compensation of the broken functions of an organism. A. D. Speransky developed the doctrine about a nervous trophicity as the function inherent in all parts of the nervous system integrating exchange processes, structure of bodies and fabrics. He established a role of trace processes in a nervous system at diseases and showed value of «the second blow» in mechanisms of recuring patol. processes. It proved the principles of new types of the nonspecific pathogenetic therapy mediated by a nervous system and connected with normalization of its functional state. A. D. Speransky revealed a community of nonspecific reactions of a nervous system at action of various pathogenic irritants and indicated creations of the theory of the medicine opening the main patterns patol the need. processes from positions of the leading role of a nervous system in implementation of complete reactions of an organism.
It is awarded by two Orders of Lenin and two the Labour Red Banner.
Works: Nervous system in pathology, M. — L., 1930; Elements of creation of the theory of medicine, M. — L., 1935; Chosen works, M., 1955.
Bibliography: Yepifanov N. S., A. D. Speransky as the surgeon and the anatomist, (To the 85 anniversary since birth), Vestn. hir., t. 111, No. 9, page 144, 1973; O. Ya. Alexey Dmitriyevich Speransky, M. — JI Are acute y., 1950; Pletsity D. F., A. D. Speransky, M., 1967; Chernukh A. M. and Pletsity D. F. A nervosism and modern pathology (To the 80 anniversary since the birth of A. D. Speransky), in book: Nervn. a trophicity in fiziol. and patol. under the editorship of. A. M. Chernukh and D.F. Pletsity, page 3, M., 1970.
B. M. Fedorov.