SPOEMANN Hans (Spemann Hans, 1869 — 1941) is the German biologist, the Nobel Prize laureate (1935).
Studied medicine, physics, botany in high fur boots of Heidelberg, Munich, the Würzburg. In 1908 — 1914 professor un-that in Rostock; in 1914 — 1919 the director Ying-that biology in Berlin. From 1919 to 1937 Freyburgsky's professor un-that.
The main works of G. Shpemann are devoted to experimental embryology. It developed methods of microsurgeries on germs of amphibiouses and a number of microtools is offered (glass needles, hair loops, micropipets, etc.). In 1901 Shne-mann opened the phenomenon of embryonic induction, i.e. dependence of development of one part of a germ on another (see Development mechanics). G. Shpemann's researches formed the basis sformuli-ro the bathing theory of «the organizational centers» of development, i.e. such parts of a germ, to-rye, differentials r at I with before other its parts, influence development of the last and define the direction of their differentiation.
A Nobel Prize G. Shiyemann is conferred for opening of «the organizational centers» in the developing germ (see Ontogenesis).
Experimentelle Beitrage zu einer Theorie der Entwieklung, V., 1936; Embryonic development and induction, New Haven — L., 1938.
Bibliography: Sh m and d G. A. t, Shpe-man, Arkh. annate., gistol. and embriol., t. 61, century 8, page 108, 1971. A. A. Klishov.