From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SPECIAL PROCESSING — a complex of the organizational and technical actions directed to neutralization or removal of radioactive and toxic agents, and also bacterial funds from a body surface, regimentals (clothes), individual means of protection, weapon, the equipment, medical property and other objects of the environment for the purpose of the prevention of defeat of staff of troops and the population.

The village of the lake includes cleansing (see) staff of troops (population), deactivation (see), decontamination (see) and disinfection (see) the infected surfaces of the objects stated above.

Broad use chemical weapon (see) in the years of World War I and studying of its striking action showed that among actions for the prevention of defeats neutralization shall take an important place toxic agents (see) in the centers of chemical infection and at stages of medical evacuation. In this regard in armies of most the states of the world by 1930 — 1935 were accepted on supply of means of decontamination and the organizational principles of carrying out S. of the lake in troops and among the population are developed. Use by the Japanese army in 1935 — 1937 in war against China various bacterial. agents, use of nuclear weapon by army of the USA in Japan (1945) demanded new approaches to the organization C. of the lake in connection with use by the opponent of weapons of mass destruction. Bases of the organization C. of the lake in the conditions of modern fighting were created in the second half of the 50th. In armies of various states they differ generally in character of the used means for S. the lake and features of its carrying out caused by distinctions in organizational and regular structure of parts and divisions.

Value C. of the lake is defined first of all by the fact that in process of increase in time of contact with PB, OB and BC danger of defeat of staff (population) increases. Under natural conditions the termination or weakening of their striking action happens in rather long terms (days, months, years). Use of effective remedies and methods C. of the lake allows to reduce much quicker degree of infection of various surfaces and objects. Taking into account character and volume of the held events distinguish partial and full S. of the lake. The choice of a way of carrying out S. of the lake and the used means depends on a type of the striking agent, conditions of fighting of troops or work on production, existence of means of protection and their efficiency, weather, features of material of the processed objects, etc.

Partial special processing at infection of OV includes decontamination of open body parts (a face, a neck, hands) and the sites of regimentals, gas masks adjoining to them on staff, certain sites of arms and the equipment, with to-rymi staff adjoins during the performance of a fighting task (the small arms are decontaminated completely); at infection of RV (see. Radioactive materials ) — deactivation of open body parts, regimentals, individual means of protection on staff; at B S infection (see. A biological weapons) — disinfection of open body parts and regimentals. It is carried out according to the order of the commander of a part (division), as a rule, after escaping of the infected zone along with performance of a fighting task and shall provide to staff an opportunity to work without individual means of protection of skin (see. Individual means of protection ). Considering special danger of OV, and also their ability to get into various materials, partial S. of the lake at infection with drop and liquid OV shall be carried out immediately, and after an exit from the infected site — repeatedly. At infection of RV above tolerance level deactivation shall be carried out as soon as possible after their detection. At suspicion of infection of BS, to-rye do not get through the unimpaired integuments, partial S. of the lake can be delayed at several o'clock. Decontamination of integuments, regimentals and gas masks, and also disinfection of open body parts is carried out with the help first-aid antigas kit (see), deactivation — washing of open body parts pure water and an obmetaniye (vytryakhivaniye) of regimentals. For partial S.'s carrying out the lake of arms and the equipment are used special decontaminating, deactivating, desinfectants (see) or the compoundings which are in the laying or tanks convenient for use in field conditions.

Full S. of the lake includes decontamination, deactivation and disinfection of arms, the equipment, regimentals and individual means of protection, and also sanitary cleaning of staff of troops. It is carried out with the permission of the commander of association (the commander of connection) after escaping of the infected zone and after performance of a fighting task. Full S. of the lake is carried out by forces and means of military units and divisions, divisions of chemical service, and at infection of BS also with forces of medical service. Full sanitary cleaning is carried out on points of special processing equipped on not infected area. Decontamination of OV at the same time consists in full disinfecting of the processed objects by means of the special decontaminating solutions. It is carried out by staff, for the Crimea arms and military equipment, with use of organic means directly are fixed in divisions or on points of special processing. Full deactivation consists RV from all surface of arms, military equipment and property to safe level at a distance. It is carried out out of a contaminated area in divisions or on points of special processing with carrying out radiation control (see) with tselyo definitions of degree of infectiousness and completeness of deactivation. For full deactivation the deactivating solutions on the basis of detergents (see) and kompleksoobrazovatel are used. Full disinfection consists in processing of all surface of the infected equipment, arms, individual means of protection, regimentals disinfecting solutions. For full S.'s carrying out the lake the organic sets which are available in divisions and also special technical means chemical are used, and at infection of BS — and medical services.

On PMP (see. Regimental medical aid station ) struck and the patients arriving from infection focuses are exposed according to indications to partial special processing. For its carrying out as a part of PMP the platform of special processing is developed, work for a cut sanitary instructor (see) and hospital attendants (see. Hospital attendant ). Partial S. of the lake of tyazheloporazhenny and easy struck is carried out separately; in necessary cases at tyazheloporazhenny it is supplemented with replacement of the infected regimentals that allows to remove from them gas masks. The lakes which are easily struck partial S. conduct independently. In medical and sanitary battalion (see), separate medical group (see) to lay down. institutions of hospital bases (see. The hospital base) the arriving struck is carried out full S. by the island. For its implementation as a part of these stages of medical evacuation the department of special processing (DSP) is developed, the main objectives to-rogo are: reception and registration of struck; definition of priority and S.'s volume of the lake; carrying out full sanitary cleaning of struck; deactivation, decontamination, disinfection (if necessary with attraction of forces and means of chemical service) the infected regimentals, individual protection equipment, medical property and a dignity. transport. For performance of these tasks in OSO develop the platform of sanitary cleaning struck, the platform of special processing of regimentals, weapon, individual means of protection, and also the platform of special processing of transport. For S.'s carrying out islands use disinfection chambers (see). The staff allocated for work in OSO shall be beforehand trained in methods C. of the lake, safety regulationss and operation of the organic equipment, sets of medical property and other means.

In the GO system of the person, the infected RV, OV and BS, go for S. of the lake to the stationary obmyvochny points created on the basis of baths, sanitary inspection rooms of the plants, shower pavilions, to-rye are equipped with technical means for disinfecting of clothes, linen, footwear and individual means of protection. For S. also temporary obmyvochny points of field type can be used by the lake of the infected population and staff of formations of GO. Persons about a wedge, manifestations of defeat pass S. of the lake in OPM, in to lay down. institutions of a country zone according to requirements to S. of the lake in system of lechebnoevakuatsionny providing GO.

V. A. Zhuravsky, IO. M. Polumiskov.