From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SPACE SUIT — the individual tight equipment providing life activity of an organism and a possibility of work of the person in extreme conditions of the environment. Pages are used in diving business, aircraft and astronautics.

Depending on a way of creation and maintenance of the set parameters of the atmosphere (see. prepared atmosphere ) Pages subdivide on ventilating and regeneration. In ventilating S. gas mixture of the necessary structure moves from external sources and, having passed through it, is thrown out the environment, deleting with that of podskafandrovy space products of metabolism of the person, excesses of heat. In regeneration S. gas mixture circulates on a closed path (see. Regeneration of air ), recovering the initial parameters in the corresponding blocks of a life support system

of S. Konstruktivno S. represents tight overalls with a helmet. Necessary mobility in the presence in S. of excessive pressure (rather surrounding) is reached by the special hinges located at the level of large joints of the person.

the Diagrammatic representation standard abnormally - a rescue space suit with a multilayer cover (on the right leg layers of a cover are shown in a section): 1 — a helmet; 2 — shlemofon; 3 — power system; 4 — the pressure governor; 5 — a removable glove; 6 — outerwear; 7 — removable footwear; 8 — a sock; 9 — underwear; 10 — a tube of the ventilating system; 11 — a heat-insulation layer; 12 — a hermetic layer; 13 — a power layer; 14 — the integrated socket of hoses of a life support system; 15 — hermetic input of wires of means of communication.

The cover of most of S. consists of several layers performing various functions — power, hermetic and heat-insulating (fig.). The power layer with the system of cables and cords (power system) strengthened on it is intended for an equilibration of the efforts arising during creation in S. of internal pressure. By means of power system it is possible to make S.'s adjustment on human height in the certain range. The hermetic layer is made of air-tight materials (rubber, proof fabrics, etc.), and a heat-insulation layer — of elastic materials with small heat conductivity. Usually on an inner surface of a heat-insulation layer the vent system providing intake of gas mixture to various sites of podskafandrovy space is mounted. Depending on S.'s appointment its constructive execution, the used materials, and also quantity of layers of a cover and their function can be various.

Diving S. are a component of ventilating or injector and regeneration diving equipment. Depending on depth of immersion in diving S. for breath air, helium-air or helium-oxygen mixes are used (see. Diving works ).

Aviation, or high-rise rescue, S. apply as emergency equipment to protection of crew in case of depressurization of a cabin of the airplane at big height now. They can be used also for protection of the pilot against influence of an air flow at emergency escape of the airplane at great speed and as warm and water protective equipment after a landing or landing on water. Modern high-rise rescue S. are ventilating. Their ventilation and pressurization are made from the aircraft air conditioning system. Breathing oxygen moves in a mask or directly in the helmet C. separated from its other part by the rubber diaphragm covering a neck of the pilot (see. High-rise equipment ). Expired air from a mask or a helmet comes to S.'s cavity and from there together with ventilating air via the valve - the pressure governor is thrown out a cabin of the airplane. In case of depressurization of a cabin and pressure drop in it the valve regulator blocks a free air-out from S., supporting in it the required size of pressure. In modern S. the possibility of pressure retention at the level is provided (to 300 mm of mercury.), almost excluding emergence of symptoms of high-rise compressed-air disease (see), and also transition to more low level of pressure (170 — 200 mm of mercury.), at Krom the movements in S. Kolichestvo are facilitated and temperature of the air given to S. can be regulated by the pilot with the broad range depending on heating environments in a cabin and own physical activity.

Despite protection of aircrew against influence of extreme factors flight (see) and the favorable conditions created to S., its use in aircraft it is limited because of inherent S. of operational shortcomings — the needs for continuous ventilation of podskafandrovy space both for flight, and in airfield, and also nek-ry restriction of freedom of movement.

Space S. depending on appointment subdivide on rescue and output. Rescue S. are used by crew in a cabin of the spaceship on the most important sectors of flight when the probability of emergency depressurization of a cabin increases. Air comes to S. from a cabin of the spaceship. In case of its depressurization there is an automatic switching to work on a closed path with use of blocks of a life support system of S. expected time of the emergency descent from an orbit. Pressurization and S.'s ventilation can be made also from cylinders with compressed gas.

The output space S. intended for ensuring life activity and work of the astronaut outside a cabin of the spaceship, as a rule, has the autonomous regeneration life support system placed in a separate satchel or directly in the case C. The necessary gaseous fluid in output S. can be created due to supply gas in it from the spaceship on hoses. Special outerwear with certain coefficients of reflection in a visible and infrared part of a range and the screen and vacuum heat insulation significantly reducing radiant heat exchange of S. with surrounding space is applied to providing a normal thermal conditions. Absorption of heat produced by the person and the equipment in S. is made in the sublimation heat exchanger, with the help to-rogo it is possible to delete up to 500 kcal/hour of heat.

In nek-ry cases combination of functions of rescue and output space S. in one design or use in a set of one of them of structural elements and parts of another is possible.

Bibliography: Alekseev S. M. and Umansky S. P. High-rise and space space suits, M., 1973; And lek - with e e in S. M., etc. Recovery aids of crew of the airplane, M., 1975; Ivanov D. I. and Hromushkin A. I. Life support systems of the person at high-rise and space flights, M., 1968; Fundamentals of bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko and M. Calvin, t. 3, M., 1975; The Reference book of the diver, under the editorship of E. P. Shikanov, M., 1973.

L. G. Golovkin.