SPACE RADIOBIOLOGY — the industry of bioastronautics, space medicine and radiobiology studying action of space radiation on live organisms with a research objective of features of biological effect of space radiation, ensuring radiation safety of space flights and development of rational methods of prevention and treatment of possible radiation injuries.
In the USSR the first experiments in space on studying biol, actions of space radiation were begun by V. V. Antipov, N. A. Delon, G. P. Parfyonov, P. P. Saksonov and others in 1963 — 1964.
Researches in the area K. rubles are directed to studying of features biol, actions of different types of space radiation, the combined action of space radiation and other extreme factors space flight (see); on assessment of radiation hazard of short-term and long space flights, and also on justification of levels of admissible doses of space radiation for the astronaut and possible biol, a link of a life support system (see. Doses of ionizing radiation ).
To. the ruble studies biol, effects at uneven radiation of a human body (see. Radiation ) in relation to conditions of influence of space radiation. At a soft radiation spectrum (at energy of electrons about 1 Mev) and an exit of the astronaut in an outer space differences of absorbed doses within a body can be considerable, reaching the maximum sizes in skin. Pilot studies with big difference of absorbed doses on depth and with shielding of separate body parts allowed to establish a role of separate critical bodies (see) in development of the corresponding forms of radiation injury (see. Radial illness , Beam damages ).
Results of researches on model systems and animals in space indicate a possibility of insignificant strengthening radiobiol. effect in the conditions of zero gravity and action of other factors of space flight.
The problem of assessment of radiation hazard of space flights, especially long, is a problem of assessment of a total dose of radiation taking into account recovery of the broken functions and development of the remote effects (see. Ionizing radiation ).
Special approach is demanded by assessment radiobiol. dangers for biol, life support systems, in particular for the higher plants. Action of space radiation can cause disturbance of processes of life activity of plants and as a result disbalance of an ecological life support system with participation in it of a vegetable link.
For ensuring radiation safety of space flight provide carrying out a complex of additional actions. Development of systems of onboard and individual radiation control of astronauts, constant control behind a radiation situation in space and its forecast concern to them assessment of protective properties of the projectible spaceship taking into account the established admissible ionizing radiation doses. However only one dosimetric information from the ship on the size of an absorbed dose still has not enough corresponding to lay down for making decision on carrying out. - the prof. of actions, since the range of individual radio sensitivity of crew members can be very various. In this regard there is a need of development of criteria and methods of assessment of radiation injury directly onboard the ship. Methods physical are at the same time developed. protection and means pharmakokhy. prevention of radiation injuries of astronauts (see. Antiactinic protection , Radioprotectors ).
In the USSR problems K. rubles are studied in a number of M3 scientific institutions of the USSR and Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In the USA works on To. rubles are conducted under contracts with National administration on aeronautics and a research of space (NASA), in France — the commission on a research of space (KNES). A number of questions on To. the river decides within the international programs. In researches extensive cooperation with the socialist countries, France and the USA is carried out. The Soviet radio biologists take active part in work of the international organizations «Interkosmos» and in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR).
The majority of works on To. the river is published in magazines «Bioastronautics and Aerospace Medicine», «Radiobiology», and also in the special periodical of Academy of Sciences of the USSR of «A problem of bioastronautics».
Bibliography: Biological effect of protons of high energy (to assessment of radiation hazard of space flights), under the editorship of Yu. G. Grigoriev, M., 1967; Bobkov V. G. and d river. Radiation safety at space flights, M., 1964; Grigoriev Yu. G. Radiation safety of space flights, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Kovalyov E. E. Radiation risk on the earth and in space, M., 1976, bibliogr.; Fundamentals of bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko and M. Calvin, t. 1 — 3, M., 1975; Problems of radiation safety of space flights, under the editorship of Yu. G. Nefedov, M., 1964; Saksonov P. P., Antipov V. V. and Davydovb. I. Problems of bioastronautics, M., 1968; Physical and radio biological researches on artificial Earth satellites, under the editorship of Yu. G. Grigoriev and E. E. Kovalyova, M., 1971; Radiobiological factors in manned space flight, ed. by W. H. Lang-ham, Washington, 1967.
Yu. G. Grigoriev.