From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SOVIET ENCYCLOPEDIAS — the scientific or popular scientific reference media issued in the USSR, containing the most essential information on all (universal encyclopedias) or separate (industry encyclopedias) to fields of knowledge or practical activities. They not only reflect the level of science and culture of a modern era, but also are carriers of Marxist-Leninist ideology.

On structure distinguish alphabetic (material is located in alphabetical order) and systematic (according to any logical classification priznakokhm) encyclopedias. Depending on the volume of the encyclopedia they are conditionally divided on big (several tens of volumes), small (10 — 12 volumes), short (4 — 6 volumes) and 1 — 3-volume, to-rye quite often call encyclopedic dictionaries.

Work on preparation of the Soviet encyclopedic editions began soon after the victory of Great October socialist revolution. V. I. Lenin dreaming in pre-revolutionary years of creation of originally Marxist encyclopedia stood at the origins of development of encyclopedic matter in the USSR. It raised a question of need of creation of the Soviet dictionary and encyclopedic editions, the short explanatory and at the same time encyclopedic dictionary. V. I. Lenin and his closest associates possess an initiative in preparation of the first such editions. To the middle of the 20th there was a process of formation of encyclopedic matter in the country. The experience of encyclopedic creativity accumulated as abroad, and in Russia was accumulated. The release of the industry «Country agricultural encyclopedia» in 7 volumes (1925 — 1928), «The trade encyclopedia» in 5 volumes (1924 — 1925), «The pedagogical encyclopedia» in 3 volumes (1927 — 1929), etc. took place. According to the resolution of the government of the USSR of February 13, 1925 preparation for release of the Big Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) was begun. In the subsequent in our country the system of encyclopedic editions including fundamental universal (Big and Small Soviet encyclopedias), industry was created (medical, technical, philosophical, historical, etc.) and republican encyclopedias. At the same time creation of encyclopedias of new type was followed by radical restructurings in the field of encyclopedic creativity, the essence to-rykh consisted in the state nature of encyclopedic matter in the USSR, the analysis and synthesis of achievements of science, art and various fields of practical activities from positions of dialectic materialism, mass character and a mnogoadresovannost of the Soviet encyclopedias.

Basic feature of the Soviet encyclopedias is also their live communication with problems of the present; the Soviet encyclopedias not just generalize and systematize the accumulated knowledge, but p analyze them from the point of view of the main objectives facing the Soviet people at this or that stage of socialist construction. This feature does the Soviet encyclopedias by active participants of socialist transformations, powerful weapon in fight for social and cultural progress.

Such value of the Soviet encyclopedias came to light with a special force from the moment of the BSE edition which marked a new stage of development of encyclopedic business in this sense. In this, the period encyclopedic literature becomes an important type of scientific reference books. Along with the 66-volume first BSE edition which is carried out in 1926 — 1947 and two editions of the Small Soviet encyclopedia (1928 — 1931 and 1933 — 1947) published a number of industry dictionaries, reference books and encyclopedias, including the first edition of the Big medical encyclopedia (see). The first industry and regional encyclopedias were prepared.

Present stage of development of S. e. began after the Great Patriotic War. Violently developed scientific and technological revolution caused significant growth in release of scientific reference books, including and the encyclopedic, ranked high in system scientific information. In 1973 encyclopedias in the USSR made 33% to the total amount of all scientific reference books. In 1950 — 1958 the second BSE edition in 51 volumes, in 1969 — 1978 — the third edition in 30 volumes was issued. Since 1957 there is «a Year-book of BSE». Are issued the third edition of the Small Soviet encyclopedia in 10 volumes (1958 — 1960); 2 editions of «The encyclopedic dictionary»: 3-volume (1953 — 1955) and 2-volume (1963 — 1964); the release of a number of industry encyclopedias, encyclopedic dictionaries and reference books is made (over the countries, regio-nakhm, etc.).

The leading Soviet publishing house in the field of encyclopedic literature — «The Soviet encyclopedia» — since the end 50 — the beginnings of the 60th started simultaneous release more than 20 industry S. e., what reflected process of differentiation of sciences and lifted encyclopedic matter in the USSR on a new step. To the middle of the 70th the edition of the following industry encyclopedias is complete: «The philosophical encyclopedia» in 5 volumes (1960 — 1970), «The Soviet historical encyclopedia» in 16 volumes (1961 — 1976), the economic encyclopedia «Industry and Construction» in 3 volumes (1962 — 1965), «The pedagogical encyclopedia» in 4 volumes (1964 — 1968), «The physical encyclopedic dictionary» in 5 volumes (1960 — 1966), «The short chemical encyclopedia» in 5 volumes (1961 — 1967), «The short geographical encyclopedia» in 5 volumes (1960 — 1966), «The agricultural encyclopedia» in 6 volumes (1969 — 1975), «The veterinary encyclopedia» in 6 volumes (1968 — 1976), «The theatrical encyclopedia» in 5 volumes (1961 — 1967), «The short literary encyclopedia» in 9 volumes (1962 — 1978), encyclopedias «Art of the Countries and People of the World» in 5 volumes (1962 — 1981), «The musical encyclopedia» in 5 volumes (1973 — 1982), etc.

The release of three editions of «The children's encyclopedia» became an important event in the Soviet encyclopedic business: 10-volume (1958 — 1962), 12-volume (1964 — 1969) and 12-volume (1971-1978).

In the late seventies the Soviet Encyclopedia publishing house began preparation and release of encyclopedic dictionaries (universal, regional and industry). In 1979 the release of the one-volume «Soviet encyclopedic dictionary» (the edition proceeds), the encyclopedic reference book «Latin America» (2 volumes, 1979 and 1982), the encyclopedia «Myths of People of the World» (2 volumes, 1980 and 1982), encyclopedias «Moscow» (1980) and «Ballet» (1981), the encyclopedic dictionary «Bibliology» (1982), «The veterinary encyclopedic dictionary» (1982), «The philosophical encyclopedic dictionary» (1983), «The physical encyclopedic dictionary» (1983), «The chemical encyclopedic dictionary» (1983), the encyclopedic dictionary «Resorts» (1983), «The geographical encyclopedic dictionary» (1983), etc. is made.

Since the end of the 50th preparation and the edition C. e began. in federal republics in national languages, to-rye it is possible to divide into two main types: universal and regional, devoted to the republic (the first experiences of creation of encyclopedias on regions belong to the 30th). «The Ukrainian Soviet encyclopedia» in 17 volumes (1959 — 1965) was the first Soviet republican encyclopedia. In USSR a number of universal and trade publications — «The Ukrainian Soviet encyclopedic dictionary» in 3 volumes (1966 — 1968), «The Soviet encyclopedia of history of Ukraine» in 4 volumes (1969 — 197 2), the encyclopedia «History of the Cities and Villages of Ukraine» in 26 volumes (1967 — 1973), «Cybernetics» (1973) is also issued. Editions of «The Belarusian Soviet encyclopedia» in 12 volumes (1969 — 1975), «The Kazakh Soviet encyclopedia» in 12 volumes (1972 — 1978), «The Kyrgyz Soviet encyclopedia» in 6 volumes (1976 — 1980), «The Moldavian Soviet encyclopedia» in 8 volumes (1970 — 1981), regional «The small encyclopedia of the Latvian SSR» in 3 volumes (1967 — 1970), «The small Lithuanian Soviet encyclopedia» in 3 volumes (1966 — 1971), «The Estonian Soviet encyclopedia» in 8 volumes (1968 — 1976), «The Uzbek Soviet encyclopedia» in 14 volumes (1971 — 1980) are complete. In federal republics preparation and release of the following encyclopedias is conducted: «The Azerbaijani Soviet encyclopedia» in 10 volumes, «The Armenian Soviet encyclopedia» in 10 volumes, «The Georgian Soviet encyclopedia» in 10 volumes, «The Tajik Soviet encyclopedia» in 6 volumes, «The Turkmen Soviet encyclopedia» in 10 volumes, «The Uzbek Soviet encyclopedia» in 14 volumes, «The Lithuanian Soviet encyclopedia» (universal) in 12 volumes.

Among editions C. e. medical encyclopedias rank high: the 1st edition in 35 volumes (1928 — 1939), the 2nd edition in 36 volumes (1956 — 1964) and the 3rd edition in 30 volumes (leaves since 1974) BME, «The small medical encyclopedia» in 12 volumes (1965 — 1970), «The short medical encyclopedia» in 3 volumes (1972 — 1974), the one-volume «Popular medical encyclopedia». In 1984 the release of the 3-volume «Encyclopedic dictionary of medical terms» is complete.

See also Big medical encyclopedia , Big medical encyclopedia , Short medical encyclopedia , Small medical encyclopedia , Popular medical encyclopedia , Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine , the Encyclopaedic medical reference book for military paramedics , Encyclopaedic dictionary of medical terms .

Bibliography: Drobinsky A. I., K. Marx, F. Engels, V. I. Lenin and encyclopedic literature, M., 1958; Kauffman I. M. Russian encyclopedias, M., 1960; Simone K. R. The terms «Encyclopedia» and «Free Arts» in their historical development, Owls. bibliography, century 3, page 62, 1947; Shmush-kis Yu. E. Soviet encyclopedias, M., 1975; Encyclopaedic creativity in medicine, under the editorship of I. P. Lidov and A. M. Stochik, M., 1983.

I. M. Terekhov.