SOUNDING (fr. sonder to find out, investigate) — a method of a tool research of hollow bodies, channels, the fistular courses and wounds by means of various probes.
3. it is applied in medicine since the most ancient times. Still A. Tsels recommended 3. some fistulas with the subsequent their section over the probe. In 17 — 18 centuries surgeons often resorted to 3. bullet wounds for the purpose of detection and the subsequent extraction of bullets. Use rentgenol, methods of a research made excessive some types 3. and at the same time promoted emergence of new.
At 3. define the direction and length of the fistular courses, the sizes of cavities of the purulent wounds unavailable to visual survey, existence in them of foreign bodys, bone sequesters, etc., and also passability of a gleam of hollow bodies. At 3. cavities and hollow bodies tubular probes receive their contents for the subsequent research or enter via probes contrast agents for rentgenol, researches. By means of 3. also determination of various parameters of a functional condition of body (temperature, electric activity, motility, pH, etc.) can be carried out. In some cases 3. has the same purposes, as drainage (see), catheterization (see). In some cases 3. assumes use of the difficult equipment (e.g., 3. the general bilious channel through a big duodenal nipple by means of a duodenoskop).
3. wounds and fistulas by means of the metal probe the doctor with observance of rules of an asepsis, taking into account the estimated direction and a form of the channel makes. The probe is carefully entered into an outside opening of fistula or into a wound and slowly, without violence advance it to any obstacle. The blind end of fistula, its wall (at the gyrose course of fistula), a foreign body or a bottom of a wound can appear this obstacle. In all cases it is necessary to avoid the forced and painful carrying out the probe since even the insignificant effort can lead to formation of the false course or infection of the fabrics surrounding fistula. In order to avoid entering of an infection in depth it is impossible to probe fresh wounds, especially fire.
Equipment 3. look in articles devoted to separate types 3.: Duodenal sounding , Sounding of a stomach , Uterine probing . Catheterization of veins puncture , Catheterization of heart , Wounds, wounds , Fistulas . See also Probes .
I. N. Belov.