From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SORTING HOSPITAL (military field sorting hospital) — the medical and evacuation establishment which is a part of hospital base and intended for the solution of the following main objectives: medical sortings struck and patients (see. Sorting medical ), coming to hospital base; distributions arrived struck and patients on to lay down. to institutions according to evacuation appointment; rendering urgent actions of the qualified medical aid struck and the patient, to-rye without it cannot be brought to the appointed hospital; the temporary hospitalization and treatment struck and patients, the Crimea because of weight of a state further evacuation is contraindicated at present; unloadings and loadings struck and the patients coming to hospital base (see) or evacuated from it by the railway, air and water transport. On concentration and medical sorting struck and the patients who are subject to evacuation out of limits of hospital base can be assigned This year. This year plays an important role as the anti-epidemic barrier preventing distribution inf. diseases in to lay down. institutions of hospital base and their drift together with evacuated struck and patients to the back of the country.

Recommendations of creation of hospital, to-ry shall accept all wounded and patients and to leave «... the most difficult or which are very easily wounded or can be cured and back sent to the regiments in several hours or days...», and also to evacuate other wounded and patients «in vtoro linear goshpital» contained in the Provision on establishment of hospitals at foreign army (1807). In Patriotic war of 1812 these recommendations were partially realized. The task to send the heaviest wounded and patients to Tula, in «main medical goshpital» was assigned to hospital in Kaluga.

In the Crimean war of 1853 — 1856 and the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 — 1878 the idea of creation was persistently developed This year by N. I. Pirogov. At the attack of Plevna in 1877 the hospital No. 63 represented «the main sorting, dressing and stage point». According to orders on military department since 1887 as a part of the educated evacuation commissions the assembly points intended for reception of wounded and patients and their sorting were established. In the Russian-Japanese war of 1904 — 1905 such points were created in Mukden and Harbin. In World War I (1914 — 1918) as a part of evacuation points special gospitali-distributors were developed. The institutions mentioned above can be considered a prototype This year. However both on the organization, and on tasks the evakogospital developed in Leningrad during the Soviet-Finnish armed conflict, and also sorting and evacuation hospital of the Leningrad and Western fronts, created at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War were closest to modern This year (in June — August, 1941). Regular sorting and evacuation hospital, the medical services of the Soviet Army entered into structure in the fall of 1942, in most cases provided reception of wounded and patients in hospital base, their medical sorting and distribution on to lay down. to institutions of base. On nek-ry fronts were available so-called control and evacuation hospital, exercising control of correctness of selection and training of wounded and patients to evacuation from hospital base. Sometimes This year at the same time performed the listed functions. This year played an important role in successful implementation of the accepted system of medical and evacuation actions (see System lechebpo-evakuatsi-onnogo providing).

This year consists of management, medical and diagnostic departments, divisions of providing. Medical and diagnostic departments are presented by the railway receiver, reception and classifying sections, hospital (medical), dental, laboratory p evacuation departments.

the Schematic diagram of expansion of sorting hospital: 1 — a sorting post; 2 — reception and classifying sections; 3 — department of special processing; 4 — insulators; 5 — dressing rooms with predressing rooms; 6 — evacuation; 7 — X-ray department; 8 — laboratory; 9 — the sanitary inspection room; 10 — the operating room with preoperative; 11 — antishock; 12 — hospital chambers; 13 — anaerobic; shooters designated the directions of the flows struck and patients

The railway receiver is intended for expansion at railway stations, airfields, piers, in ports for the purpose of the organization of unloading, reception and medical sorting struck and the patients arriving to hospital base the railway, air or water transport or for reception from the hospitals struck and the patients who are subject to evacuation out of limits of this base and loading in transport. This year usually develop «on an entrance» in hospital base in structure: a sorting post, department of special processing, reception and sorting and evacuation departments separately for heavy and moderately severe struck and patients, reception and sorting and evacuation departments for laid down-koporazhennykh also easily patients, hospital (medical) department (a dressing room from a predressing room, the operating room with preoperative, antishock, anaerobic, hospital chambers, a dignity. propusknik), стоматологического^ and laboratory departments, insulators, X-ray department, drugstore (fig). Forces and means create a medical distribution post This year (see). The Sorting Post (SP) is placed on entrance on the platform of sorting hospital. The medic (the paramedic, the nurse) working here on the basis of medical documents, poll, assessment of a state and radiation control (see) рас^ predelyat struck and patients on the following groups: needing special processing send to department of special processing; needing isolation — to isolation centers; struck and sick heavy and moderately severe — in intended for them priyemnosortirovochny; easily struck and easily patients — in a reception and classifying section for easily struck and easily patients.

Each reception sorting room consists of the sorting platform, reception and sorting rooms (tents), a dressing room from a predressing room. Reception sorting rooms are intended for reception, placements and registration which arrived struck and patients, providing short-term rest and food, medical sorting, rendering to them in need of acute medical aid with the subsequent transfer come to evacuation department, and needing additional inspection or nontransportable — in medical department. Struck and the patients who arrived in This year are surveyed in priyemnosortirovochny, or in medical departments with use of data of laboratory and x-ray researches and after establishment of the final diagnosis are translated to destination in corresponding hospital of this hospital base. The infectious patients placed in the isolation center immediately are transferred to infectious hospital. The nontransportable contingent is on treatment in before emergence of a possibility of their transfer to destination in the relevant specialized hospital This year.

At receipt struck and patients in This year on cars, as a rule, there is no need for unloading of all arrived from the transport which brought them. At arrival of the car the doctor can carry out medical sorting being in it struck and patients; at the same time he gets acquainted with medical documents, conducts survey, and in the presence of the corresponding opportunity survey struck and patients directly in the car and makes the decision on the one who is subject to unloading. To it carry persons in need in the urgent qualified medical aid, in urgent hospitalization, in additional inspection for definition of evacuation appointment, and also struck and patients, to-rykh it is necessary to overload in other dignity. transport for evacuation to destination in a certain specialized hospital. In the car leave struck and the patients who are subject to delivery in one certain hospital; vacant places fill struck and the patients having similar evacuation appointment then the car brings them to this hospital.

Bibliography: Abramov P. V. Instruction on the organization of the surgical help to wounded at the front. (From experience of World War I of 1914 — 1917), Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 2, page 49, 1947; At r in and M. M. Organization's h of medical support of the Soviet troops in a battle of Moscow, in the same place, No. 12, page 10, 1971; Zavalishin N. I. Head field evacuation point, M., 1942; Ibragimov B. N. Work of sorting hospital, Voyen. - a dignity. business, No. 4-5, page 41, 1942; Pies N. I. Collected works, t. 7, page 13, M., 1960; Smirnov E. I. Questions of the organization and tactics of public health service, M., 1942; about N e, War and military medicine, 1939 — 1945, M., 1979; Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine, t. 5, Art. 221, M., 1948.

G. P. Lobanov.