SOMALIA, the Somali Democratic Republic — the state in Northeast Africa. The area is 637,7 thousand km 2 . Population of 5,4 million people (1981). The capital — Mogadishu (apprx. 600 thousand zhit., 1980).
Ofits. languages — Somali and Arab. The country in the administrative relation is divided into 15 areas.
The republic was formed by 1 .VII. 1960 as a result of reunification of the Italian and British Somalia. In the country the parliament was elected, the cabinet is created. In 1969 as a result of a military coup the Somali Democratic Republic led by the Supreme revolutionary Council was created. Till 1977 S. maintained the active relations with the socialist countries, and then departed from a progressive course of domestic and foreign policy.
S.'s climate of tropical monsoons and tropical deserts (in the north). Steady temperatures are characteristic (average temperature of January 25 — 30 °, July 32 °).
Page — the agrarian country. More than 70% of its population are busy with nomadic cattle breeding. In agriculture the subsistence and semi-subsistence economy prevails. The industry is developed poorly (apprx. 200 enterprises, hl. obr. manufacturing industry, from 15 thousand working).
The main population — Somalis (97,7%, 1978); several thousands of Europeans, hl live in the country. obr. Italians. Vital rates (on 1000 people) in 1979: birth rate 48,0, mortality 20,0, natural increase 28,0. Child mortality 177,0 on 1000 live-born. The average duration of the forthcoming life is 41 years (1981).
In S. infectious and parasitic diseases are eurysynusic (60% of incidence, 1975), generally went. - kish. infections, malaria, tuberculosis, a leprosy that is connected with shortcomings of preventive maintenance of the population, and also with a nomadic way of life of a considerable part of inhabitants. These diseases are the main reason for death. There are districts, endemic on a schistosomatosis and trepanematoza. The ascaridosis, an urinogenital schistosomatosis and a dochmiasis in districts of irrigation agriculture affect 40 — 90% of the population. Gastrointestinal infections take the leading place in structure of mortality and incidence of children. Among other children's infections it should be noted measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever.
The health service in the country is headed by the Ministry of Health. In administrative regions and the cities there are appropriate authorities of management of health care.
In 1972 in S. there were 5163 hospital beds for hospitalization (17,6 on 10 000 population), from them in-tsakh the general profile 3232, in tubercular-tsakh 1566, in-tsakh for mentally sick — 365 beds. Provinces B-tsy or provinces are designed to render specialized medical aid to the population, the advisory help rural-tsam and to carry out sanitary and hygienic and anti-epidemic actions.
In 1973 in the country 193 doctors (0,64 for 10000 population), 4 stomatologists, 21 druggists, 57 technical-nicknames-laboratory assistants, the 59th dignity worked. inspectors, and also, according to 1970, 757 nurses and 110 midwifes.
In S. efforts on training of doctors are made: in 1973 in Somali National un-those (Mogadishu) is discovered medical f-thetas. There are institutions for training of paramedical staff. The personnel primary medical - a dignity prepare. help.
The considerable attention is paid to development of the centers of health care. In Somalia in the most remote clinics there are about 5 — 7 beds used for hospitalization of the emergency and nontransportable patients. In not hospital help it appears in polyclinic departments of BC, out-patient clinics, the centers of health care (in the separate centers there are conditions for the emergency hospitalization of 5 — 10 patients), and also the mobile crews staffed more often by paramedical staff, the role to-rykh is especially big in connection with the considerable number of the wandering population. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of S. not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad.
Bibliography: Health care of foreign countries, under the editorship of O. P. Shchepin, with, 222, M., 1981; Draft of the program budget for 1976 and 1977 financial years, Official documents of WHO No. 220, page 757, M., 1975; Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 324, M., 1981; Sixth report on the world health situation, 1973 — 1977, pt 1, p. 263, Geneva, 1980; World health statistics annual, 1978, v. 3, p. 13, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 33, Geneva, 1980.
A. A. Rozov.