SOLUBILIZATION (Latin solubilis subject to decomposition, soluble) — transition of insoluble or slightly soluble compounds to the dissolved state under the influence of the surfactants added to solvent in low concentrations. As S.'s example in a human body and animals transition of lipids of food to a soluble state can serve in presence bile acids (see).
S.'s phenomenon is used in pharmaceutical industry for solubilization of various pharmaceuticals and strengthening, thus, them biol. activities. In S.'s biochemistry it is applied, e.g., at allocation and purification of enzymes
and other proteins. Recently value of the term «solubilization» more and more extends; in biology and medicine to them designate not only process of intramicellar dissolution, but also and transition of membrane-bound components (e.g., proteins, including enzymes) in a soluble phase of a cell — cytosol — under action (both in vitro, and in vivo) of various factors: mechanical (homogenization), physical (ultrasound, osmotic shock), chemical (detergents, peroxides of lipids, Retinolum) and biological (phospholipases, mycotoxins). Disturbance of structure of cytomembranes (plasmatic, lysosomic, mitochondrial, etc.) from the subsequent S. of their components is important in a pathogeny of ischemic states, inflammatory, dystrophic and necrotic processes, viral and bacterial infections, a number of toxicoses, etc. Selective impact on S.'s process is one of ways of pharmacotherapy of inflammatory diseases, nek-ry a stake-lagenozov (e.g., a pseudorheumatism), toxicoses, etc.
Bibliography: Goryachennova E. V. Philosophy of preparative allocation and purification of enzymes, in book: Enzymes, under the editorship of A. E. Braunstein, page 21, M., 1964, bibliogr.; Maddie E. and Dunn M. Solubilization of membranes, in book: Biochemical issled. membranes, under the editorship of E. Maddie, the lane with English, page 160, M., 1979, bibliogr.
V. A. Tutelyan.