SOLOVYYOV Zinoviy Petrovich (1876 — 1928) — Soviet party and the statesman, one of the largest organizers and theorists of the Soviet civil and military health care.
Being a student medical f-that Kazan un-that 3. P. Solovyov in 1898 joined the ranks of RSDRP. In student's years it was expelled from university and was exposed to prosecutions for revolutionary activity. Upon termination of un-that (1904) 3. P. Solovyov during the Russian-Japanese war served as the doctor of group
of the Red Cross. In 1905 3. P. Solovyov worked a dignity. the doctor in the Simbirsk province, and then managed provincial medical and sanitary bureau. In 1906 in connection with police prosecutions 3. P. Solovyov was forced to move to the Saratov province where originally worked at the medical site, and then in provincial medical and sanitary bureau.
In 1909 3. P. Solovyov was arrested for revolutionary activity and after 8-month imprisonment banished for 3 years to Ust-Sysolsk of the Vologda province where he was engaged in literary work; he was forbidden to work in the specialty. Upon termination of the reference 3. P. Solovyov lodged in Moscow. Before World War I worked in Pirogovsky society and its magazine «Public Doctor», and also was the secretary of the All-Russian league of fight against tuberculosis. In 1914, at the beginning of World War I, 3. P. Solovyov was appointed the secretary of medical and sanitary department of the Main committee of the territorial union and worked there till 1917. In preoctober days he was elected the chairman of the Khamovniki justice, and in October — the member of revolutionary-military committee of the Khamovniki district of Moscow. In 1918 he was appointed the manager of a medical part and the member of board of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and was a part of Council of medical boards (see). 3. P. Solovyov participated in development of structures and tasks of management of health care, including the project of the organization of the National commissariat of health care. In July, 1918 he became the deputy people's commissar of health care of RSFSR. In 1919 3. P. Solovyov was elected the chairman of executive committee of the Red Cross of RSFSR, and in January, 1920 is appointed the chief of the Head military and sanitary department of Red Army. In 1923 3. P. Solovyov organized and headed department of social hygiene medical f-that the 2nd MSU.
After Great October socialist revolution 3. P. Solovyov devoted all the experience, organizing abilities and energy to construction of the Soviet health care. During an initial stage of formation of the Soviet power he together with N. A. Semashko carries out huge work on collecting of the separate pre-revolutionary organizations and healthcare institutions — territorial, city, departmental — to a whole. Along with it he develops a number of the problems concerning basic fundamentals of the Soviet health care, one of theorists to-rogo it i
the Literary heritage 3 by right is considered. P. Solovyova has not only historical value, it did not lose the relevance and in a crust, time. Works 3. P. Solovyova are characterized by accuracy and persuasiveness of criticism of bourgeois medicine and depth of theoretical development of the organizational principles of Soviet health care (see), especially preventive direction. In pre-revolutionary works 3. P. Solovyova questions of health care were stated in economic, social and political aspects, from positions of interests of wide workers of masses. Medical - a dignity. the subject was to it a background and the cause for display of poverty and lawlessness of workers, for exposure (as far as acceptable conditions allowed) absolute indifference of ruling classes of imperial Russia of a fate of the people. It defined revolutionary sounding of his literary creativity.
Works 3. P. Solovyova of the postoctober period are devoted to the statement of new public fundamentals of health care, display of harmonious communication between tasks, to-rye put before themselves bodies of the Soviet power in health care, and expectations of workers. Making in 1924 the report at the V All-Russian congress of zdravotdel on the subject «Preventive Problems of the Medical Help», 3. P. Solovyov developed the idea «... the uniform beginning in holding medical and preventive actions...» in the conditions of the Soviet society.
3. P. Solovyov pays attention to two major sections of preventive medicine: 1) studying of the environment, in a cut lives the patient, conditions of his work and life and 2) definition of ways and methods of the organized influence directed to improvement of this Wednesday.
The careful accounting of the happening shifts in the environment, establishment of its main vrednost, studying of character and ways of spread of social diseases and, at last, allocation of individuals, groups of the workers or the whole enterprises which are most needing in to lay down. - the prof. of the help — all this, according to 3. P. Solovyova, allows to choose correctly methods of recreational actions and to purposefully carry out them among the population.
At the meeting on reform of medical education which was taking place in June, 1924 in the report on «What doctors the higher medical school» 3 shall prepare. P. Solovyov put forward two provisions: 1) content of medical education is caused by requirements imposed on the doctor by this social system, interests of ruling classes; 2) revolution in Russia, having overthrown capitalism, destroyed at the same time and irreconcilable contradictions between requirements of medical prevention and a capitalist way of production, and now prevention in broad understanding of this word shall be put in a basis of activity of bodies and healthcare institutions.
3. P. Solovyov attached great value to close communication of doctors, with a mass of workers. At the same time 3. P. Solovyov emphasized need of full diagnostic and medical training of future doctor: «Synthesis of medical and preventive medicine — here is how could be defined the sum of knowledge, kotorsh are armed by school of the ending doctor».
In May, 1927 at the VI congress of zdravotdel 3. P. Solovyov makes the report on the issue of planning of health care. During this period there was a preparation of plans of industrialization of the country and socialist transformation of agriculture. Expansion acting and a construction of the new industrial enterprises was provided; large housing construction in the old cities and creation of the well-planned new cities; growth of urban population due to increase in number of working class (in addition to a natural increase of the population in the country in general); considerable at l at chsh eny mothers it is scarlet no - yto you x conditions of workers. These factors, 3 specified. P. Solovyov, it is also necessary to be the basis for plans of health care in the state scale for carrying out «... broad sanitary and preventive actions in service of those groups which will be involved in this enormous process of reconstruction of the national economy». 3. P. Solovyov recommended to involve in planning of health care of specialists doctors and scientists and to speed up work in this direction of sections of health care of councils, commissions of improvement of work at to lay down. - the prof. institutions, cells of health care at the enterprises, in institutions and schools to involve in planned recreational work of the organization of the Red Cross more widely.
Attaching huge significance to statistical methods of a research of problems, 3. P. Solovyov repeatedly urged all doctors and especially organizers of health care to pay a close attention to statement of the account as a fundamental principle of any planning.
On a post of the chief of the Head military and sanitary department of Red Army 3. P. Solovyov with enthusiasm directs the efforts to development of the Soviet military medicine.
In 1920 — 1921 in Red Army under the direction of 3. P. Solovyova was carried out huge work on fight against epidemic of sypny and returnable typhus, edges were threatened by fighting capacity of troops. Having come to the management of military-medical service with extensive experience of construction of the Soviet civil health care, 3. P. Solovyov made an invaluable contribution to development of military medicine, including to medical ensuring combat training of Red Army to peace time and to preparation of medical shots for medical service. In «Preventive bases of military public health service» (1924) 3. P. Solovyov completely extends «bases of the preventive beginnings» of civil health care to military public health service. He considered that the preventive beginnings, to-rymi are guided civil to lay down. institutions, «can be in general implemented also in practice of military and sanitary institutions taking into account all those features which are inherent in them and are defined by a system and spirit of Red Army and Fleet and military public health service». 3. P. Solovyov emphasizes that the public basis of scheduled maintenance in army received check and with honor passed examination in combat conditions in fight against sypny and returnable typhus in the years of Civil war.
In 1925 3. P. Solovyov speaks at the plenary session of sanitary department of Military science foundation with the report «Scientific bases of military public health service», in Krom attaches crucial importance: 1) to improvement of methods of an appeal in ranks of RKKA; 2) to development of organizational and scientific measures «service of the Red Army man in the direction of creation from it the powerful, harmoniously developed person» and preventions of incidence in troops; 3) the organizations of the medical help in close coordination «with the general system of the precautionary and improving actions». 3. P. Solovyov recommends to make «solid amendments» to medical medicine, to its methods and techniques. He pays attention to prospects of physical methods of treatment (especially climatic and balneal) in the course of functional therapy of injuries.
In the article «Immediate Tasks of the Army Doctor» (1926) 3. P. Solovyov so formulates these tasks: 1) studying of military collective and especially harmful and improving moments and factors of its life and combat training; 2) development of plans of recreational actions in relation to the whole divisions and individuals; 3) implementation of these plans. 3. P. Solovyov demands from the senior doctor of a part not only medical, but first of all organizing activity, calling him the organizer of sanitary life. For this purpose 3. P. Solovyov considered necessary to change style of work of the senior doctor. At the same time he noted that the senior doctor shall pay much attention to out-patient service, without subcontracting this business to lekpoma and without being distracted by the solution of small questions, time of doubtful property as, e.g., numerous psychotechnical researches. Besides, the medical officer needs to impart taste to statistics.
3. P. Solovyov attached great value to medical work, especially in troops, meaning organic communication and interpenetration of medical and preventive actions. In this regard 3. P. Solovyov paid special attention and to equipment of army medical institutions medical property. In the article «At a Boundary of New Decade» (1928) devoted to decade of Red Army, to-ruyu it is possible to consider as some kind of parting word, «will» of the senior companion, 3. P. Solovyov notes again that the main task of the next years consists in every possible increase in volume and level to lay down. works in army medical institutions.
Great attention 3. P. Solovyov gave to military-medical education. He considered that complication of military science, motorization of army and equipment by its new types show arms to «... to military workers of the requirement of very high competence of that field of military science in which they work...». The professional soldier the doctor shall therefore to have comprehensive and military-medical, and military knowledge to undertake the leading role on training of the doctors of a stock, in a large number joining army during its transition to the martial law.
In works 3. P. Solovyova found reflection and its view of structure of the management of military-medical service. He regarded positively the fact of stay of the Head military and sanitary department in structure Narkomzdrava in due time, seeing in such accession of «the leading military and sanitary center to the center of all medical and sanitary business of the country» as manifestation of unity of the Soviet medicine. Thanks to it active participation Narkomzdrava in medical supply of Red Army, in improvement of the draft contingents, in selection of healthy replenishment, and also in the organization of treatment of the military personnel in civil-tsakh is provided where there are no military hospitals nearby.
As the head of the All-Russian society of the Red Cross (see. Union of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR ) and the closest associate Narkoma of health care of N. A. Semashko 3. P. Solovyov directed many efforts and energy to sanitary and sanitary and chemical defense of the country. He repeatedly’ made reports before the medical and Komsomol public, and also in the press.
Characteristic feature 3. P. Solovyova was Bolshevist adherence to principles and thorough Marxist preparation. He was a consecutive pupil of V. I. Lenin and the uncommon propagandist of Marxism-Leninism, the irreconcilable and acute critic of a capitalist system and bourgeois medicine, the talented organizer and the largest theorist of the Soviet civil and military health care. Purposefully and persistently carried out 3. P. Solovyov in life the Lenin principles of care about health of workers of the first-ever socialist state. Personal qualities 3. P. Solovyova — cheerfulness, optimism, selfless devotion to business and a revolutionary will — in many respects promoted success of its versatile party and state activity.
Works: Preventive problems of medical medicine, M., 1926; Questions of military medicine, L., 1955; Chosen works, M., 1956.
Bibliography: Life and activity 3. P. Solovyova, sost. V. A. Solovyova * M., 1980; Zavalishin N. I. Zinoviy Petrovich Solovyov and Soviet military medicine, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 1, page 9, 1952; Memories 3. P. Solovyova, under. an edition A. P. Golubkova and N. A. Costa, M. — L., 1929, bibliogr.; Petrov B. of i * P about t at l about in B. M. 3. P. Solovyov, Sh. 1976; Semashko N. A. 3. P. Solovyov is the fighter of health care at the front, Voyen. - a dignity. business, No. 3, page 10, 1941; Smirnov E. I. Memories of the doctor - pain - shevika, the first organizer of the Soviet military medicine 3. P. Solovyova, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 1, page 3, 1947; Tenen-boym N. G. Z.P. Solovyov and sanitary education in Red Army, Voyen. - a dignity. business, No. 3, page 14, 1941.
E. I. Smirnov.