From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SOFT DRINKS — group fruit and berry and the fruit refreshing and adipsous drinks, free of alcohol or supporting him in insignificant quantity. N treat B. also grain, tea kvass, tonic soft drinks (see) and mineral waters (see). The last are used also for the medical purposes. The main part B. of N is implemented chilled in this connection they are called also soft drinks. B.'s consumption N has the expressed seasonal nature and sharply increases during the hot periods of year.

The most typical representative B. of N are soda fruit and berry and dessert waters, to-rye prepare with use of high-quality drinking water, sugar, fruit and berry fruit drinks, syrups, extracts, juice, food organic acids (lemon, tartaric, milk), food dyes and food essences.

Water for B.'s preparation of N shall meet all requirements imposed to drinking water. In addition to cleaning at city water treatment stations, at the plant where drinks are produced, it is exposed to additional filtering via special filters. For ensuring adipsous and flavoring properties B. of N are exposed to gassing of CO 2 and to enrichment by acids, salts, aromatic substances, sugar, etc. Saturation by carbon dioxide gas is made under pressure liquid carbonic acid in special devices — saturexes. In the last tightness and automation of processes of water delivery and carbonic acid, their mixing, and also production of water in pouring shall be provided. Solubility of carbonic acid in water depends on pressure and temperature. By build-up of pressure and cooling it is obviously possible to reach high levels of saturation of B. of N carbonic acid.

Gassy B. of N prepare on natural juice, syrups and fruit drinks, and also on synthetic essences — lemon, orange, etc. Besides, distinguish dessert B. of N (lemonade, cream-soda, etc.), to-rye also carbonic acids differ in the raised sugar content (to 10 kg on 1 hl) (to 2 kg). The cold fruit punch also belongs to dessert gassy B. of N, a small amount of red table wine enters a compounding to-rogo.

Gassy dessert B. of N shall meet the following requirements (tab).

Syrups represent the natural fruit juices preserved with sugar in number of not less than 60%. They are used for preparation of carbonated fruit and berry drinks, at sale of soda water, and also in confectionery production. The main indicators of quality of the pasteurized fruit and berry syrups: specific weight at t ° 20 ° not less than 1,287, acidity — 0,2 — 0,5%, keeping of the benzoic to - you are no more than 0,04%, salts of copper — 5 mg/kg, salts of tin — 100 mg/kg. During the use of the sulphited juice the content of sulfur dioxide gas in syrup shall not exceed 20 mg/l.

The fruit drink represents the fruit or berry juice subjected to spirit fermentation.

B.'s quality of N shall meet requirements of the existing standards. Drinks shall be transparent, without deposit and foreign particles. In them the content of salts of heavy metals, arsenic and the preserving substances, use of any substitutes and substitutes of sugar is not allowed (saccharin, etc.), except drinks for patients with diabetes, in to-rykh it is allowed to use food saccharin instead of sugar. For acidulation lemon, wine and milk food acids, and for strengthening of aroma — food fruit essences are allowed. In drinks of the superior quality use milk to - you is not allowed. For subpaint of drinks use of sugar dye and the food dyes resolved by the Ministry of Health of the USSR is allowed. During the use for preparation of drinks of the sulphited fruit and berry juice the content of sulfur dioxide gas shall not exceed 20 mg/l. Drinks shall have sufficient firmness at storage: at t ° 20 ° they shall remain not less than 7 days, and drinks for patients with diabetes — not less than 15 days.

Grain kvass belongs to B. of N, however it represents low alcohol drink since contains apprx. 1% (weight) of alcohol. Grain kvass prepares from mix of rye and barley malt, rye flour and water with addition of sugar by the combined spirit and lactic fermentation. Kvass contains a significant amount of organic acids, and also a number of the extractives providing it high flavoring and adipsous properties. For aromatization addition of mint, raisin and nek-ry essences is allowed. Use of the preserving and artificial sweet substances is not allowed.

On the quality indicators grain kvass shall have density on a sakharometra 1,5 — 7,3 (depending on a grade of kvass), it is not higher than 1,2% of alcohol, the titratable acidity which is not exceeding 4 ml 1 N of alkali liquor on 100 ml of kvass. The small deposit of yeast and a grain thick is allowed. A shelf life at t 20 ° 3 — 4 days. Storage of kvass shall be made at a temperature from 2 to 12 °.

The so-called tea kvass received by means of growth of «a tea mushroom» belongs to B. of N. The last represents culture of two species of microorganisms — a drozhzhepodobny mushroom from the sort Torulopsis and an acetic-acid bacterium of Bact. xylinum. There are data that the third microorganism — Bact, gluconicum participates in development of «a tea mushroom». Symbiosis of these microorganisms provides fermentation of sugar with formation of alcohol and carbonic acid and the subsequent oxidation of alcohol in acetic to - that. Cells of Bact. xylinum form the thick layered mucous and cartilaginous capsule reminding a jellyfish.

«the tea mushroom» on weak solutions of sugar (4 — 6%) and weak tea grows. As a result of life activity of «a tea mushroom» this solution develops a sweet-sour taste and an easy gazirovannost, turning, thus, into the pleasant drink called by «tea kvass».

Completely ripened, having the most expressed flavoring properties is 7 — 8-day tea kvass. There are data that tea kvass has antibiotic properties and contains a nek-swarm amount of vitamins of group B.

Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 272, M., 1971; Preobrazhensky A. A. Microbiological control of production of soft drinks, M., 1951; Merchandizing of foodstuff, under the editorship of F. V. Tserevitinov, t. 3, page 77, M., 1949.

K. S. Petrovsky.