SOCIAL SECURITY — the system of material security established in the USSR by the state and guaranteed by the Constitution of the USSR in old age, in case of a disease, full or partial disability, loss of the supporter, and also in other cases provided by the law. Continuous development and S.'s improvement by the lake is inseparably linked with broad actions of the Communist Party and Soviet government for increase in national well-being, growth of the material and cultural standard of living of citizens of the country, care about person (see) with his growing material and cultural requirements (see. Communist Party of the Soviet Union ).
Article 24 of the Constitution of the USSR establishes that in our country work and state develop. systems health care (see) and social security. Besides, in a number of the articles of the Constitution (Fundamental law) of the USSR guaranteeing the most important rights of citizens — on work, rest, health protection, etc. — the provisions which are directly relating to questions C. of the lake contain. So, article 43 of the Constitution of the USSR affirms the right of citizens of the USSR «... on material security in old age, in case of a disease, full or partial disability, and also loss of the supporter. This right is guaranteed by social insurance of workers, employees and collective farmers, temporary disability benefits; payment at the expense of the state and collective farms of old-age pensions, disability and on the occasion of loss of the supporter; employment of the citizens who partially lost working capacity; care of aged citizens and of disabled people; other forms of social security». Proclaiming that the family is under protection of the state, article 53 of the Constitution of the USSR establishes the main ways of the state care of a family, among to-rykh — payment of grants on the occasion of the birth of the child, providing grants and privileges to large families, and also other types of grants and the help to a family.
In the USSR the right of workers for S. of the lake was proclaimed in the first days of the Soviet power. Found reflection of the requirement of the RSDRP (1903) program and Lenin insurance working program adopted by the VI RSDRP (1912) (Prague) All-Russian conference in it. In the provision on the social security of workers approved by the Decree of SNK of October 31, 1918, signed by V. I. Lenin (see. Lenin and health care ), the main conditions of creation of system C. of the lake in socialist society were defined: «Social security of workers extends to cases: a) rendering all types of the help and obstetric aid medical, medicinal, etc. to the persons needing them; b) temporary loss of means of livelihood owing to disability, irrespective of the reason, it caused (the general diseases, mutilations, etc.); c) constant loss (all or a part) means of livelihood owing to the disability caused by a mutilation, a disease, an old age, etc.; d) losses of means of livelihood owing to the unemployment which occurred not because of the unemployed. Tasks of social security include as well acceptance of precautionary measures against diseases, mutilations, etc., and equally simplification of their effects». During the subsequent period the group of people, captured by social insurance gradually extended, new types of S. of the lake were entered and management of this system was improved. In 1928 for working separate industries provision of pensions on an old age was entered, a cut then it was extended to all workers, and by 1937 — and to employees. In 1944. The decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR increased the state help to having many children and lonely mothers, privileges for pregnant women and for mothers are increased, measures for expansion of network of institutions of protection of motherhood and the childhood are taken. It is remarkable that this act, implementation to-rogo demanded from the state of considerable appliances, it was accepted in difficult years of the Great Patriotic War.
In post-war years the system C. of the lake in our country constantly was improved and developed. Important acts were the Law on the state pensions (1956), the Law on pensions and grants to members of collective farms (1964), the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions «About measures for implementation of social insurance of members of collective farms» (1970).
The wide complex of the effective measures directed to further improvement of population policy of the state increase in welfare of families with children and level of material security of disabled was defined by decisions of the XXVI congress of the CPSU, resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for strengthening of the state help to the families having children» (1981), «About measures for further improvement of social security of the population» (1981) and also Decrees of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR «About measures for strengthening of the state help to the families having children» (1981) and «About increase in the minimum sizes of pensions and other measures for improvement of provision of pensions» (1981). The resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions «About an order of introduction of partially paid child care leave before achievement of age of one year and other actions for strengthening of the state help to the families having children» (1981) and the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR «About introduction of amendments to the Provision on an order of appointment and payment of the state pensions and to the Provision on an order of appointment and payment of pensions to members of collective farms» (1981) by it were at the same time issued. Established periods and order of implementation of the social program approved by the XXVI congress of the CPSU were these resolutions.
Scope of social security in our country is huge.
Dynamics of expenses on social security and numbers of the persons provided with pensions and grants for 1960 — 1980 is given in the tab.
In «The main directions of economic and social development of the USSR for 1981 — 1985 and for the period till 1990» it was noted that public funds of consumption, for the account to-rykh are carried out free education, medical aid, material security in old age and other social actions, for the tenth five-years period made 527 billion rubles. Payment and privileges from these funds per capita increased in 1980 up to 438 rub against 354 rub in 1975. In 1983 the population received from public funds of consumption of payments and privileges for the sum of 134,5 billion rubles, is about 6 billion rubles more, than in 1982. With uche1om these payments and privileges the salary of workers and employees for this period increased from 246 rub to 254 rub a month.
In the Soviet Union in 1980 St. 50 million people received pensions, from to-rykh the majority — on an old age. Hundreds of thousands elderly and disabled are on full care of the state in special well-planned facilities of social security where behind them the due care (is conducted see. House nursing home ). Millions of children attend kindergartens and a day nursery (see. Day nursery, day nursery gardens ), and their parents pay only an insignificant part of cost of the contents of children (more than 80% of cost of the contents of the child in a day nursery and more than 70% — in kindergarten on average fall to the share of the state), and quite often are absolutely exempted from a payment.
Large sums are allocated by the state for payment of child allowances. All workers in our country receive benefits in case of temporary disability, and the woman, in addition, of a grant on pregnancy, childbirth, the welfare lump sums at the birth of the child, etc. In sanatoria (see) and rest houses, in boarding houses (see) and dispensaries (see. Sanatorium dispensary ), on tourist centers (see. Tourism ) millions of citizens according to the permits issued to them for a small payment have a rest or in general it is free. In numerous summer camps (see) millions of school students have annually a rest according to the free or partially paid permits. In specialized educational institutions disabled people since the childhood acquire available to them for health reasons profession. Besides, thanks to wide network of the prosthetic and orthopedic enterprises, all disabled people are provided prostheses (see) and others prosthetic and orthopedic products (see), as a rule, free, or on favorable terms. To disabled people of the Great Patriotic War and a nek-eye each 7 years free of charge cars are given by another. Everything listed above is only a part of the widest measures which are carried out to areas C. of the lake of the population of our country.
In the USSR the modern system C. of the lake is constructed on the following philosophy: S.'s generality of the lake (i.e. equal rights of citizens of the USSR on S. of the lake irrespective of an origin, a social and property status, a racial and national identity, a floor, the relation to religion etc.); providing citizens with all types of S. of the lake; constant improvement of conditions and increases in level C. of the lake of citizens during social and economic development about-va; the state guarantee of the rights of workers for S. of the lake fixed by the Constitution of the USSR; participation in management of system C. of the lake of workers through Councils of People's Deputies and labor unions; high level of providing.
The village of the lake in the USSR is carried out completely at the expense of the public and public funds, without any deductions from the salary or the income of workers. The state budget, contributions of the enterprises, institutions, organizations and collective farms for the state social insurance and contributions of collective farms to the centralized allied funds of social security and social insurance of collective farmers is the lake a source of means for S.
The significant role in system C. of the lake belongs to labor unions. Trade-union committees of the enterprises, institutions, the organizations, collective farms, the highest and average special educational institutions carry out the state social insurance of workers, employees and pupils, grant allowances on social insurance, provide permits to a dignity. - hens. treatment, in rest houses, tourist and recreational institutions, pay dietary food, direct children of workers in pioneer the camp, check the organization of medical aid by the worker, employee and to members of their families (see. Social insurance).
Social insurance, being a continuous part of all system C. of the lake, extends generally on working, and it is regulated by «The main conditions of providing with the grants on the state social insurance» approved by the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions of February 23, 1984. In life it is necessary to meet the concept «social security» of narrow sense, a cut covers generally the unemployed (pensioners, disabled people) more often and it is carried out due to direct allocations from the state budget. From these means pensions are paid, pay prosthetics, provide disabled people with vehicles, contain houses nursing homes for aged and disabled people, child allowances pay to lonely and mothers having many children and provide other types of the help. The leading place in this work belongs republican Min-you of social security.
The important role in work with the population in the area C. of the lake is assigned to local councils of People's Deputies (city and regional in the cities, regional). They provide timely and correct appointment and payment of the pensions and grants established by the legislation; resolve issues of guardianship and guardianship over sov9rshennoletnimi persons, to-rye for health reasons cannot independently carry out the rights and carry out the duties; control work of medical labor examination. Settlement and village councils of People's Deputies monitor observance of the pension legislation, work of collective-farm councils for social security of collective farmers; appoint within the allocations provided in the settlement (rural) budget of a grant to the persons who do not have the right for the state pensions; make in executive committee of higher Council offers on purpose of grants to having many children and lonely mothers and about delivery of lump sums to the citizens affected by natural disasters.
Councils of People's Deputies form departments of social security of executive committees on places, to-rye carry out actions for S. of the lake of aged and disabled citizens (and first of all participants of the Great Patriotic War are serviced); provide the correct and timely appointment and payment of the pensions and grants established by the legislation; give legal aid to the enterprises, institutions, the organizations and collective farms in work on preparation of documents and representations to purpose of pensions to workers, employees, collective farmers and members of their families. The task of departments also includes holding actions for employment of disabled people, members of the families which lost supporters, and the persons who are looking after disabled people, the organization of vocational education and retraining of disabled people; assistance in employment of aged citizens, and also in the organization of the productions, workshops and sites using work of disabled people. Departments exercise control of providing the Great Patriotic War to disabled people and families of the died military personnel, to other disabled people and members of the families which lost the supporter, to aged citizens, having many children and lonely mothers, provided for them privileges and advantages. They consider the questions connected with the direction of citizens in institutions C. of the lake; provide control of work of institutions C. of the lake located in the territory of the district, the city, city district, give help in permission of the questions connected with their activity. Departments of social security deal with issues of guardianship over full age capable persons, to-rye for health reasons cannot independently carry out the rights and carry out duties; control work of medical labor commissions of experts, observe and control work of primary organizations and industrial practice enterprises All-Russian about-va blind people (see. Society of blind people ) and All-Russian about-va deafs (see. Society of deafs ); perform the general management of cash desks of mutual assistance of pensioners; involve the public of bodies of social security etc.
Provision of pensions possesses the most important place in system C. of the lake both on the volume of means, and on number of provided. Distinguish four types of pensions: on an old age, on disability, on the occasion of loss of the supporter, for long service (the last are established for separate categories of workers, in particular — workers of health care). According to the general rule old-age pensions are granted to men on reaching 60 years, to women — 55 years. For the right for this pension men need to have also length of service not less than 25 years, to women — 20 years. Besides, purpose of old-age pensions and on favorable terms for working at works with harmful working conditions, at underground works and in hot workshops, and also at other works with severe conditions of work is provided. So, in some cases, for men old-age pensions are on favorable terms granted on reaching them 50 years and at length of service not less than 20 years, to women — on reaching imy 45 years and at length of service not less than 15 years. The women who gave rise and brought up 5 and more children to 8-year age have privileges for receiving old-age pension; they pension are granted at the age of 50 years and at length of service not less than 15 years.
At incomplete length of service for mothers having many children and mothers of disabled people since the childhood in purpose of pensions privileges are also established. The women who brought up 5 and more children can receive pension to 55-year age, at 5-year length of service in a row or with breaks, and to a half of an experience (but no more) can be confirmed with testimony. Pensions at an incomplete experience are granted to mothers of disabled people since the childhood when the disabled child reached 8-year age.
Blind men have the right for pension on reaching 50 years, at length of service not less than 15 years, women — on reaching 40 years at length of service not less than 10 years. Pensions are on favorable terms provided to many other categories of workers, including become disabled at fulfillment of duties of military service, worked in districts of Far North or in the areas equated to these districts, the women who worked not less than 20 years on certain productions, to women of a number of professions in the textile industry, etc.
Old-age pensions are granted in the amount of 50 to 100% of earnings of the worker or the employee, and the actual earnings are lower, the size of pension as a percentage to it is higher. To old-age pensions extra charges for uninterrupted length of service of work, or the general experience over a certain number of years, and also for the unemployed pensioners having in the dependence of disabled family members are established.
Disability pensions are appointed the worker and the employee at approach of disability, i.e. at long or constant disability (see. Disability ). Depending on extent of disability allocate three groups of disability (see. Disability , Working capacity ). Disability is established by medical labor commissions of experts, to-rye are under authority of bodies of social security. Disability pensions are granted at disability as a result of a labor mutilation or occupational disease, or as a result of the general disease. Disability pensions in connection with a labor mutilation or occupational disease are appointed irrespective of length of service, and the disability pension which came owing to the general disease — depending on length of service and age by the time of the request for pension. Pensions on the occasion of loss of the supporter are received by the disabled members of the family of the died worker or the employee consisting in his dependence. Nek-rym long-service pensions are established to categories of workers. So, and in the city — not less than 30 years, long-service pensions are granted to the doctors and other workers of health care who worked in the specialty in the rural areas and the settlement of city type (the working settlement) not less than 25 years of 40% of a rate of the salary or a salary.
The minimum sizes of pensions are established: on an old age — 50 rub; on disability of the I group — 75 rub, the II groups — 50 rub, the III groups — owing to a labor mutilation or occupational disease — 30 rub, and owing to the general disease — 26 rub a month. Pensions on the occasion of loss of the supporter cannot be lower at three or more disabled — 75 rub, two — 50 rub, at one — 28 rub. For families of the dead at the front of military personnel of ordinary structure the minimum size of pension is 38 rub.
The citizens having the right for the state pension can address for its appointment after emergence of the right for it, without restriction with any term at any time. Old-age pensions or on disability are appointed irrespective of whether citizens stopped work by the time of the request for pension or continue to work. Pensions are not subject to taxation by taxes.
Allowances — one of the main forms of the help to families in the USSR. Among them the important place is taken by the welfare payments to mothers having many children granted and paid to the women having two children at the birth of the third and each following child. The lump sum in these cases is paid at the birth of the child, and monthly — from second year after the birth of the fourth child before achievement of 5-year age by it. Other important type of grants — the welfare payments to lonely mothers granted and paid to the women who are not married on education and keeping of children if in birth certificates there is no record about the father of the child or record about the father it is made in accordance with the established procedure according to instructions of mother. Benefits for single mothers are paid already in the presence of one child and before achievement of 12-year age by children, according to the decision of the commission to destination of welfare payments to having many children and lonely mothers at executive committee of regional (city) council of People's Deputies. During passing by the serviceman of term of active duty bodies of social security make payment of child allowance to wives of soldiers, sailors, sergeants and foremen of conscription service. In the USSR bodies of social security pay grants to disabled people of I and II groups, including blind people and deaf-mutes, disabled people since the childhood and to disabled people if they do not receive the state pensions and have no the sources of the income and relatives obliged to support them under the law and also communication with agriculture.
Essential help in the case C. of the lake of the population are the houses nursing homes intended for full-time residence aged and the disabled people needing leaving, consumer and medical services (see. House nursing home ). Coordinate their activity, irrespective of departmental subordination S.'s bodies of the lake, and control of quality of medical service aged and the disabled people living in houses nursing homes, observance a dignity. - epid. the mode in these institutions and rendering the specialized medical help carry out bodies of health care in accordance with the established procedure.
Bodies of social security conduct also a lot of work on employment of disabled people according to labor recommendations medical labor commissions of experts (see), without to-rykh heads of the enterprises and institutions have no right to employ disabled people of the III group. At many enterprises of the national economy intended for the labor device of disabled people special workshops for work of disabled people, the persons having tuberculosis, psychological, cardiovascular diseases and visually impaired persons are created. If necessary conditions for work of the house are created to disabled people. Medical experts and average medics of VTEK together with representatives of trade-union committees, doctors to lay down. - the prof. of institutions and S. workers of the lake exercise control of observance of labor recommendations by administration and carrying out effective measures for social and labor rehabilitation of disabled people.
The 6-hour working day and annual vacation of 24 working days is established to the disabled blind people working at the state enterprises. At piecework to these disabled people of performance standard in comparison with established decrease by 25%, and quotations increase by 35,3% in comparison with price-work quotations.
Along with continuous functioning of system C. of the lake in the USSR the broad system of the social and economic and medical actions promoting increase in level of public health care, a high level of working capacity, health p long active life of citizens, the prevention and decrease in incidence, further reduction of disability and decline in mortality, elimination of the factors and conditions which are harmfully influencing health of citizens is steadily carried out. The important role in implementation of these tasks belongs to bodies of health care.
Harmonious development of a socialist ekonompka and continuous increase in the standard of living of all members socialist about-va assumes along with increase in the standard of living of an able-bodied part of the population steady improvement of financial position of the persons which left work as a result of disability, owing to disability or old age and also the persons which did not reach still working-age. Creation of the corresponding systems C. of the lake which are equitable to interests of all population is characteristic feature and advantage of socialist society.
See also Social insurance .
Table. DYNAMICS of EXPENSES ON SOCIAL SECURITY AND SOCIAL INSURANCE AND NUMBERS of the PERSONS PROVIDED with PENSIONS AND GRANTS (1960 — 1980)
Bibliography: V. A Anarconum. Providing veterans of work in the USSR, M., 1965; Hares JI. And. and Rush is also new I. D. Social security of collective farmers, M., 1972; L and N of c e in M. S. Social security in the USSR, M., 1976; Lenin decrees about social security, sost. M. L. Zakharov, etc., M., 1972; Social security and insurance in the USSR, sost. M. L. Zakharov and V. M. Piskov, M., 1979.
V. A. Strelkov, M. S. Lantsev.