SOCIAL INSURANCE — a form of social security of workers and employees and in appropriate cases of members their sekhmy at the expense of the special funds created by contributions of the enterprises, organizations and collective farms. The village of the village has the state character in the USSR and is a component of system social security (see) workers. The village of the village plays the dominating role in social security as from the point of view of coverage of the population different types of the social help, and concerning the expenses making about 3/4 all costs of social security in our country.
S.'s beginning of page in imperial Russia belongs to 1912 when the government under the influence of growth of labor movement was forced to make concessions to requirements of workers and to enter the law on material security of a small part of workers providing two types of insurance: due to illness and from accidents. For carrying out insurance hospital cash desks were due to illness created, in to-rye insurance premiums gathered from workers. This law covered insurance only of Ve a part of the Russian proletariat.
At once after Great October socialist revolution, in November, 1917 the Lenin decree «About free transfer of all medical institutions of the enterprises to hospital cash desks or, in case of absence of those, about delivery of sums of money on their equipment» was issued. Hospital cash desks were transformed on new democratic basis, their functions were expanded according to directive documents of VTsIK and SNK (about insurance on a case of unemployment and a disease). They paid temporary disability benefits, on pregnancy and childbirth, on burial of the dead, and also provided rendering free medical aid to working and their families. Means of hospital cash desks developed of insurance premiums of businessmen. The resolution SNK of November 15, 1921. «About social insurance of the persons occupied with wage labor» hospital insurance cash desks were replaced by territorial. To Weah they were under Narkomat's authority of work.
In activity of system C. of page already at this time active part was taken by labor unions. Committees of insurance cash desks were elected at trade-union conferences (see. Insurance medicine ). Since 1933 the control C. of page was completely transferred to labor unions.
The state S.'s system of page operating in the USSR realizes (together with a social security system in general) the Lenin ideas formulated in the insurance program of the VI RSDRP (1912) (Prague) conference. Original positions of this program provide S. of page of workers on all cases of disability (a mutilation, a disease, an old age, disability, pregnancy and childbirth) and at loss of the supporter; coverage insurance of all working and their families; participation of the pages insured in management C.; state nature of insurance.
The state S.'s fund of page forms at the expense of contributions of the enterprises, institutions and the organizations without any withdrawals from the salary of workers and employees (failure to pay predpriyatiyekhm, institution, the organization of insurance premiums does not deprive works and the pages serving the rights for providing according to the state S.). Rates of insurance premiums are established by Council of ministers of the USSR. According to the Resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR of January 23, 1980 No. 54 they make 4,4 — 14% of the sizes of the wages fund of working and are differentiated on labor unions of the industries of the national economy.
However contributions do not cover all expenses io to the state S. of page. In this regard the grant in fund C. of page, the sizes a cut is established by the state are defined annually as component of the state budget of the USSR.
The village of the village will be organized by production industry principle. The general leadership in business of social insurance is assigned to the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, practical guidance is concentrated in the Central committees of labor unions and their republican, marginal and regional organs. Cross-industry coordination is carried out by the relevant territorial Councils of labor unions (republican, regional, regional, and in the cities of Moscow and Kiev — city councils of labor unions). Labor unions manage S. page, and also being under their authority by sanatoria, dispensaries and rest houses, cultural and educational, tourist and sports facilities. The village of the village is carried out with broad participation of workers. At the enterprises, in institutions and the organizations at trade-union committees the commissions on social insurance work. The most numerous group of the trade-union activists participating in S.'s implementation by the village is made by insurance delegates. Trade-union committees together with administration of the enterprises, institutions and the organizations, with the assistance of the mentioned commissions grant the allowances paid as S. to page, carry out necessary work on training of workers and employees to retirement, beforehand prepare the documents which are required for this purpose and in time submit the worker to award of pension.
Under the authority of labor unions there are, besides, entrusted doctors representing on behalf of labor unions the interests of workers in protection of their health. Besides, the entrusted doctors are organizers of public control over statement medical and a dignity. - hens. providing workers, participates in development of actions for the prevention and decrease in incidence and disability, to improvement of the working conditions and life working on improvement of work to lay down. - the prof. and a dignity. - a gigabyte. institutions, and also in check of implementation of the relevant decisions (resolutions) and plans.
The main conditions of providing with grants on the state S. of page are approved by the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions of February 23, 1984. The order of providing members of collective farms with these grants decides by position of Allied Council of collective farms and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions of March 4, 1970 (on subsequent changes and additions). As the state S. of page (at the expense of the state S.'s funds of page) workers and employees, and in appropriate cases and members of their families are provided: temporary disability benefits because of diseases and after injuries, including in connection with labor mutilations and occupational diseases (see. Disability ), on pregnancy and childbirth (see. Maternity leave ), at the birth of the child, on care of the child before achievement of age by it one year, on children in needy families and on burial; old-age pensions, on disability, for long service (to some categories of workers), and also on the occasion of loss of the supporter. S.'s means of page are used also on a dignity. - hens. treatment and stay of workers, employees and collective farmers in rest houses and boarding houses, on camp sites, etc. (see. Rest house , Resorts , Boarding house , Sanatorium ), service by sanatoria dispensaries in the place of work (see. Sanatorium dispensary ), on the given free of charge clinical nutrition (see. clinical nutrition ), on keeping of children in summer camps (see) and nek-ry other actions.
One of the most common forms of material security as S. of page is delivery of temporary disability benefits to workers, employees and collective farmers in the following cases: due to illness and in connection with an injury, followed by disability; at a dignity. - hens. treatment if it (including journey there and back) is longer than the next issue; at a disease of the family member and need of care of it; in cases of a quarantine; at transfer into other work in connection with occupational diseases; at prosthetics with the room in a hospital. The right for a grant arises at release of the worker from work on the specified reasons with delivery to it to lay down. establishment leaf of disability (see). Temporary disability benefit is granted (except cases of a home accident) from the first day of disability to its recovery or before establishment of disability medical labor commission of experts (see).
Temporary disability benefit to the working disabled people of the Great Patriotic War, workers, employees and collective farmers who sustained labor injuries or an occupational disease and also the persons having the continuous seniority not less than 8 years (irrespective of the reason of disability), is paid of 100% of earnings. In other cases the grant is given in sizes from 50 to 100% of earnings depending on duration of the continuous seniority. To the workers and employees who are not members of labor union, the grant is given in a half size, but it cannot be less than 30 rub a month in the cities and settlements of city type and 27 rub in rural areas.
Issue for care of the sick family member is provided with a grant, as a rule, lasting 3 calendar days, and at a serious illness and a special household situation — no more than 7 days. The care allowance for a sick is given by the child who did not reach 14 years for the entire period, during to-rogo the child needs leaving, but no more than for 7 calendar days. To lonely mothers, widows, divorced women the care allowance for a sick is given by the child who did not reach 7 years for a period of up to 10 calendar days. In case of need stay of mother with the sick child in a hospital, the grant is given for all the time of release it from work.
The grant at a quarantine is given if the worker or the employee was karantinizirovan bodies a dignity. - epid. services owing to contact with infectious patients. The size of grants — same, as well as at a disease karantiniziruyemy.
Maternity allowances to women — workers and the employee — are given at a rate of full earnings during release from work for 56 calendar days before childbirth and 56 calendar days after the delivery. In case of abnormal (pathological) families or the birth of two and more children the grant after the delivery is given during 70 calendar days.
In the XI five-years period according to decisions of the XXVI congress of the CPSU partially paid issue for the working mothers having the general seniority not less than one year before achievement of one year by the child of age, and also for the women studying with a separation from production with payment of grants of 50 rub a month in districts of the Far East and Siberia, in northern districts (Karelian the ASSR, the Komi ASSR, the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions), and also in the Vologda, Novgorod and Pskov regions and 35 rubles a month in other districts of the country is entered. Conditions of payment are at the same time changed and the sizes of lump sums at the birth of the child are increased. Now this grant is given to women (irrespective of length of service) of 50 rub at the birth of the first child and 100 rubles at the birth of the second or third child. At the birth of two or more twins the grant is paid of 100 rubles on each child. At the birth of the fourth and each subsequent child the lump sum is given on system of the state help to mothers having many children in the amount of 65 to 250 rubles. If mother of the child does not work and does not study, the lump sum at the birth of the 1, 2 and 3 child is given of 30 rub working (or to the student with a separation from production) to the father, irrespective of the size of its earnings (grant).
The practician S. with, steady development undergoes in the USSR, the sizes of costs of these purposes grow from year to year. Proceeding from the social and economic tasks determined by party in the long term in the main directions of economic and social development of the country for each 10 years the tasks in this area concretized in five-year plans are established. The Main directions of economic and social development of the USSR for 1981 — 1985 and for the period till 1990, and equally State plan of economic and social development of the USSR for 1981 — 1985 can be an example. These documents defined the wide program of actions io to S.'s improvement by the village. The system of grants according to this program is supplemented with child care allowances before achievement of age of one year by it, the system of payment of lump sums in connection with the birth of children significantly improves, the package of measures for increase in level and conditions of provision of pensions is carried out, privileges during the obtaining permits are expanded in pioneer the camp, the 20 percent extra charge to old-age pensions for long uninterrupted length of service of work at one enterprise is entered. For strengthening of the state help to the families having children, and improvement of social security in general in the XI five-years period it is allocated apprx. 15 billion rubles, and the most part of expenses are the share of social insurance funds.
Within S. of page, in addition to financial support disabled, holds events for public health care (see. Legislation on health care ). A considerable part of means of S. of page is used on holding recreational actions among school students in summer camps, protection of motherhood and childhood (see), prevention of incidence of workers, employees and collective farmers. The important place in management of this activity is taken by the comprehensive plans of improvement of conditions, labor protection and sanitary and recreational actions developed within the industries by the ministries together with the Central committees of labor unions, and also the made periodically comprehensive plans of the Ministry of Health of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.
The system C. of page of collective farmers which is based on the same principles as the state S. of page of workers and employees actively develops in the USSR. The village of the village of members of collective farms is carried out at the expense of means of collective farms. Distinctions in formation of funds C. of page of workers and employees, on the one hand, and collective farmers — with another, are caused by existence of two forms of ownership: state and cooperative and collective-farm. S.'s funds of page of collective farmers are accumulated in the Centralized allied social insurance fund of collective farmers. The order of formation of this fund and its expenditure is defined by Allied Council of collective farms and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.
Collective farmers are provided from this fund with temporary disability benefits and at the birth of the child. Other types of grants to members of collective farms are financed from other funds.
In collective farms direct work on S. of page is carried out by trade-union committees of collective farms and the commissions on S. of page created by them. Conditions and norms of providing collective farmers as S. to page are similar to those, to-rye work for workers and employees. The legal basis of S. of page of collective farmers is made by the Constitution of the USSR, the Basis of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about work and the Approximate charter of collective farm. These acts are legal base for the legislation according to S. of page and determine types of providing by S.
the page C. of page in foreign countries is defined by a political system and level of their economic development. In most the capitalist states developed economically it covers all working on hiring, and also small businessmen, seldom extending to all citizens of the country or to all, living in the country. In a number of the states temporary disability benefits provide only the persons who sustained labor injuries and occupational diseases. E.g., in many states of the USA temporary disability benefits at the general disease are not paid. In this group of the countries within S. to page, except temporary disability benefits, the worker provides disability pensions (generally at full disability), on the occasion of loss of the supporter, on an old age (will increase). Also doles are paid.
In developing countries of S. of page extends to more narrow group of people, occupied in social production. In many cases it does not cover working in agriculture, servants and small businessmen. Also the list of cases is limited, for to-rykh S. is established to page. So, temporary disability benefits, caused by a nonprofessional disease, in system C. of village of these countries, as a rule, are not given. Similarly and the disability pension connected with these diseases are not paid. In many countries there is no insurance and on unemployment.
Distinctiveness of the systems C. of village of all capitalist countries as developed, and developing is payment of insurance premiums in funds C. of page not only businessmen, but also insured.
In the socialist countries the system C. of page is similar to that which exists in the USSR.
Bibliography: See bibliogr. to St. Social security .
M. S. Lantsev, A. G. Solovyov.