SOCHI — climatic and balneological seaside resort, largest in the USSR; is in Krasnodar Krai of RSFSR in 350 km from Krasnodar. The resort occupies the territory 145 km long along the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus from the Psou River to the settlement of Shepsi. The sea beach extends along all coast, its width from 6 to 34 m.
The medical value of natural factors of the resort, their unique combination, a picturesque landscape, a high level of improvement made S. not only one of the best all-union resorts, but also brought it world fame.
Lazarevsky, Central, Khosta and Adler districts make so-called. Big Sochi, to-rye resorts and resort settlements include: Magri, to Makopsa, Council-Kvadzhe, Ashe, Lazarevskoye, Golovinka, Loo, Uch-Dera, Dagomys, to Mamayk, Sochi, Matsesta, Khosta, Kudepsta, Adler, Krasnaya Polyana. The main part of the resort (actually Sochi) is located on the Sochi cape on slopes of the mountains Bytkh, Blagodat, etc. represents the administrative, scientific and medical and cultural center of all resort objects located within the resort Big Sochi.
History of the resort
In 1838 on the Sochi cape and around it military strengthening was created, and later there was a district city of Sochi. Radical on-seleniyekhm the Ubykh tribe of a psatch was local. Many nice names in national history are connected with a number of districts of the resort. The settlement of Lazarevskoye is called in honor of the admiral M. P. Lazarev who landed in this place a naval landing during the Russian-Turkish war of 1828 — 1829. The poet-Decembrist A. I. Odoevsky served in the same places after the Siberian penal servitude by the soldier.
In studying of chemical structure of sulfuric sources in the gorge of the Matsesta River which the local population long since considered curative (Matsesta on an adverb of Ubykhs means «fire-water»), S. I. Zalessky, A. I. Fomin took part to I. V. Struva. The fine climate of the area and balneological value of mineral waters were noted by A. I. Voyeykov and F. I. Pasternats-ky considering that in S. there are all data for creation of the first-class resort. The mining engineer M. V. Sergeyev, the hydrogeologist E. Martel, the chemist E. E. Karstens, etc., the studied Matsesta sources, came to a conclusion that on concentration hydrogen sulfide (see) they have no analogs in the world, such high concentration of hydrogen sulfide meet in the nature only in volcanic gases and aerosols. However development of resort natural resources of S. happened extremely slowly.
Date of opening of the resort of S. consider 1909 when The Caucasian Riviera hotel was constructed. Great October socialist revolution made natural medical resources of resorts national property. In days of the first five-years periods according to the special decision of the Soviet government construction of the resort of S. for the purpose of its transformation into an all-Union health resort began. The long-term plan of general reconstruction of the resort was developed on the basis of basic balneological researches of A. N. Ogiljvi, G. M. Danishevsky, etc. The best architects of the country were involved in construction of the resort: A. A. Vesnin, L. A. Vesnin, I. V. Zholtovsky, And. V. Shchusev, etc. The resort was considerably expanded and well-planned, new large sanatoria, bathing buildings, rooms of cultural appointment, the station, etc. are constructed. Many of these buildings are outstanding creations of the Soviet architecture. New beaches, parks, the seaside embankment are created, the hydromineral base of the resort is expanded and strengthened, its balneotekhni-chesky economy was improved. In 1936 it was organized Sochi research balneal by in-t (nowadays Sochi scientific research institute of balneology and physical therapy). In days of the Great Patriotic War the resort represented the largest hospital base, all sanatoria and rest houses were turned in hospital. To page it is awarded the order Patriotic war of the 1st degree. In post-war years construction, expansion and improvement of the resort continued even more in high gear.
Physiographic and climatic features
the Resort occupies the central part of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. From the South it is limited to the Black Sea, from the North — Greater Caucasus Range, the distance to-rogo from a coastal strip makes from 23 km in the West to 75 km in the east. The territory of the region of S. is characterized by a big variety of a relief and the physiographic conditions inherent to seaside mountain areas. Climate of the resort wet subtropical, ridges of Greater Caucasus protect the coast from cold norths. The arrangement of mountains on the way of wet sea winds is the reason of loss of a large amount of rainfall — on average 1400 mm a year. Relative humidity of air in July and August reaches 70% and above, in the fall and in the winter it makes 50 — 60%. There are no long and strong winds in S., preferential sea breezes and warm southeast winds, speed prevail to-rykh does not exceed 2 — 4 m/s. Sharp transitions of one season to another in S. are absent. The winter in S. does not happen to constant snow cover and frosts, the winter period begins with the first decade of December, terminates at the end of February. Average temperature of the coldest months — January and February — is equal 5,8 °. During this period plentiful rainfall drops out, in December — January thunder-storms are frequent. In separate days air temperature can go down for a while to — 5 and even to — 12 °. The spring proceeds apprx. 2 months — from the end of February prior to the beginning of May. The amount of precipitation makes up to 200 mm during a season at this time. The summer long (5 months), very warm, with a large number of hot days, is characterized by steady, clear, cloudless weather. Average monthly temperature of June apprx. 20 °, July and August apprx. 23 °. The number of sunny days in a year reaches 290. However influence of high temperature of air and brightness of sunshine are softened with sea breezes and plentiful magnificent subtropical vegetation. The best season in S. — fall when the warm, clear weather prevails; the heat, frequent in the summer, falls down. Average monthly temperature of September 20 °, October 16 °. The season of sea bathings lasts since the end of May — the beginning of June until the end of October, and sometimes to the middle of November. Water temperature in the sea reaches to 29 °, temperature of pebble on the beach to 60 ° in the summer.
As S. represents group of resorts and resort settlements and occupies quite big territory, separate points which are its part depending on the location, a relief, distances from the sea and height above sea level have the climatic features. So, in Matsesta in summer months of night more cool that is explained by active circulation of mountain air in rather narrow valley of the Matsesta River. A microclimate of Khosta located also along the valley of the river, but representing the hollow closed from cold winds by close rising mountains, softer than in Sochi. Annual average air temperature and waters in the sea in Khosta on 1 ° above, than in S. Mikroklimat of Krasnaya Polyana which is at the height of 550 m above sea level has lines of mid-mountain climate.
The climate of humid subtropics causes a variety and richness of vegetation of Page. The coastal strip of S. represents the continuous park from evergreen, subtropical coniferous and deciduous, tree and shrubby species. In the center C. the Tree nursery park numbering apprx. 1400 types and forms of tropical and subtropical flora is located. The woods begin from the seashore and rise to mountains to 2000 m above sea level. In Primorsky district, at the height up to 300 — 400 m prevail oak and oak grabovye the woods, in the mid-mountain district at the height of 400 — 700 m — chestnut, oak grabovye and beechen grabovye. The Verkhnegorny district (1200 — 2000 m) is covered with the beechen and fir and fir woods. Such rare and high-valuable tree species as a box and a yew meet.
The major medical factors, except climate, in S. are sulfide waters (see), received the name of the slabosulfidny waters, «Matsesta» on originally known natural exits, in valleys of the Matsesta Rivers and Agura. Later sulfide waters were found on a significant area of the artesian basin from river of Mamayk to Adler. Within the Sochi field of sulfide waters the Matsesta, Khosta, Kudepsta and Mamaysky sites are fullestly studied. The Matsesta site — the lower and average current of the Matsesta River — is characterized by mineral waters with various concentration of sulfides (from weak to very high). On chemical structure these waters are chloride sodium (see. Hloridno-natriyevye of water ) with a mineralization of 4 — 12 g/l, temperature 23 — 26 °. The main component of gas composition of the most salt waters is methane (see), in slabosulfidny waters prevail nitrogen (see) and hydrogen sulfide (see). The highest concentration of sulfides (400 — 430 mg! k), a high general mineralization (23 — 27 g/l) and temperature (34 — 43 °) the waters received by deep drilling in Nova Matseste possess.
On the Khosta site (the lower current of the river of Khosta) are brought to a surface high-concentrated (concentration of sulfides to 425 mg! k) sulfide waters with a mineralization to 24 g/l and with the temperature of 42 °. On the Kudepsta site (the lower and average current of the river of Kudepsta) two types of sulfide waters are brought to a surface: very strong sulphidic (concentration of sulfides to 460 mg/l) thermal chloride sodium waters with a mineralization of 18 — 28 g/l and ultrastrong sulphidic (concentration of sulfides is higher than 650 mg/l, temperature 40 °) srednemineralizovanny (a mineralization of 8 g! k) chlorine dny sodium waters.
On the Mamaysky site chloride sodium brine waters with a mineralization of 40 — 41 g are removed to a surface very strong sulphidic (concentration of sulfides of 430 — 450 mg/l) high-thermal (temperature to 65 °)! l. On a current of river of Mamayki the new field of the low-mineralized gidrokarbonatno-sodium waters with the insignificant content of iodine and bromine, but with the increased content of boron is reconnoitered. These waters can be used as lechebnostolovy. In the valley of the Herota River the field is revealed iodine-bromine waters (see), the area to-rogo in the West is limited to a watershed of the rivers K at deists and Khosta. Wells are drilled on depth of 330 — 450 m. On chemical structure it is highly mineralized (21 — 24,7 g/l) iodine-bromine (I 28 mg/l, Br of 50 mg/l) chloride sodium water, to-ruyu apply to bathtubs and others balneoprotsedur. In the north of the site less mineralized waters with the smaller content of iodine and bromine are found. In the valley of the river of Sochi the low-mineralized slabotermalny hydrocarbonate sodium water with the increased content of fluorine and silicon to - you is received, the next analogs a cut are lechebnostolovy waters Dilijan and Luzhan-Skye. In 15 km to the South from Krasnaya Polyana there is a Chvizhepspnsky field of carbonic arsenous waters with a mineralization of 4,5 — 6,0 g/l.
Formation of all variety of .mineralny Matsesta waters (both on degree of a mineralization, and on concentration of sulfides) obteyasnyatsya by dilution of strong sulfide waters of the deep horizons the sweet waters arriving from the so-called areas of food located on considerable removal from the Sochi field of sulfide waters in a mountain part of the Caucasian ridge. Features of the main types of sulfide waters, their chloride sodium composition, a mineralization, content of chlorides and bromine close to the sizes characteristic of sea water testify to their typically sea origin.
Sulfide waters of various concentration are used for bathtubs (see), irrigations, inhalations and others outside balneoprotsedur. Preparation of sulfide water of necessary concentration is carried out by pumping by pumps in elevated tanks of waters with various concentration of sulfides in the necessary proportion. Heating of water with initial concentration is made in boilers just before revenues to bathing buildings to procedures. A low-mineralized water of gidrokarbonatno-sodium structure is used for drinking treatment and pouring.
In S.'s resort widely apply methods of a climatotherapy: air and solar bathtubs, a dream on the seashore (see. Air-cure , Heliation ), thalassotherapy (see), terrainkur (see). In addition to terrenkur, in separate sanatoria all-resort routes for the dosed walking are equipped.
An auxiliary medical natural factor in S. is therapeutic mud (see. therapeutic muds ), deposits a cut are near Adler. On physical. - to chemical structure this dirt belongs to fresh-water humus clay Ils with an insignificant mineralization. For obtaining higher therapeutic effect clay Ils mix with sulfide waters.
Medical and recreational institutions
In S. the 60th function St. various a dignity. - hens. and more than 150 recreational institutions, including such large specialized sanatoria as Moscow, «Victory», «Truth», «Homeland», sanatorium of S. M. Kirov, etc. There are sanatoria for adults, teenagers, parents with children. All sanatoria are equipped with medical and diagnostic offices, klimatolechebny constructions, many have own balnearies and beaches, pools with the warmed-up sea water. For all sanatorium institutions of labor unions in S. the sanatorium of G. K. Ordzhonikidze (fig. 1) is basic. In Sochi there are many houses and boarding houses of rest. The largest merging of boarding houses of rest is in Adler.
All-spa medical institutions are the bathing buildings and balneolechebnitsa who are in the basic in Old and Nova Matseste nek-ry of them enter the balneofizioterapevtichesky association «Matsesta» (fig. 2); resort policlinics, a row to-rykh have own beaches (fig. 3); balnearies, boarding houses for ambulatories, ingalyatoriya, land and surface aero sunbeds, etc. all-resort klimatolechebny constructions. In the Riviera park the medical and sports base functions.
A lot of work on studying of the mechanism of action of resort factors and on development of new methods of treatment is carried out by the Sochi scientific research institute of balneology and physical therapy of M3 of RSFSR, to-ry gives scientific and methodical help not only S., but also to other resorts of Krasnodar Krai.
Indications to treatment in the resort: diseases of cardiovascular system with a circulatory unefficiency are not higher than the II degree, a disease of a musculoskeletal system, a nervous system, female generative organs, skin.
Contraindications — see. Sanatorium selection, table .
Bibliography: Bertenson L. Medicinal waters, dirt and sea bathings in Russia and abroad, page 197, SPb., 1901; Buyuklyan A. A. and Safonovn. V. Matsesta and her medicinal properties, Krasnodar, 1979; In and l e d and N with to and y I. A. Balneoterapevticheskoye value of the Matsesta hydrosulphuric sources, Saturday. works on studying of the resort of Sochi — Matsesta, page 97, M., 1934; Health resorts of labor unions of the USSR, under the editorship of I. I. Kozlov, page 133, M., 1979; N. E. Sochi's Novels, Krasnodar, 1980.
V. V. Poltoranov.