From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SOCCER — sports team game with a ball in which it is allowed to play legs, the case and the head.

Two teams on 11 people, duration of a game of 90 min., with one break participate in a game. As the place for a game serves specially prepared football field.

T. around the world, including in the USSR, is one of the most popular sports. Millions of athletes annually participate in competitions in soccer of various scale. Competitions are held on age groups, since 10 years. Football players from 18 years are allowed to a game in adult teams (in some cases on permission of the doctor earlier). Duration of a game decreases according to age.

T. — the fascinating, emotional game promoting strengthening of health, a hardening, versatile physical training, education of the will, courage. A game is connected with frequent change of game situations that demands from the playing bystry and various actions. Continuous fight for a ball is accompanied by the most different types of movements: run of various intensity with frequent change of speed, breakthroughs, accelerations, jumps, blows to a ball, falling, power and acrobatic receptions. At the same time loadings of high-speed and power character prevail; the works which are carried out repeatedly for a long time at the total large volume, they promote development in football players of high endurance. Football players shall possess the bystry motor reaction, good coordination of movements, stability increased by functionality of sense bodys.

At rest at the trained football players the reduced heart rate (46 — 60 ydjmin), the increased stroke output of heart (70 — 100 ml) which is a little lowered by the ABP are noted (105/60 — 115/70 mm of mercury.), deep breath with

a frequency of 10 — 16 cycles of 1 min. I am vital the capacity of easy athletes makes

5,5 — 6,8 l, lung ventilation more often (see) — 4 — 6 l } min. The organism of football players is, as a rule, steady against air hunger.

Actively held game causes considerable strengthening fiziol. functions: a metabolic cost

of an organism reaches 1200 — 1500 shat, cordial reductions become frequent to 140 — 190 ud! the min., stroke output of heart increases up to 100 — 170 ml, systolic the ABP raises to 150 — 180 mm of mercury., diastolic the ABP changes a little, the respiration rate increases up to 28 — 40 cycles in 1 min., lung ventilation — up to 100 — 150 l! mines', the lose of weight of a body for a game makes

1 — 2 kg. With growth of level of fitness and technical skill reaction of an organism of the athlete to loading becomes more economical.

At games in F. traumatism in comparison with other sports is rather big. The device of joints of the lower extremities, meniscuses of a knee joint (see), muscles of back group of a hip are more often injured copular sumochny. At collision and unsuccessful reception of a ball the head the concussion of the brain is possible (see). Prevention of traumatism consists in the correct orientation of football players to strict observance of rules of the game, good physical and technical training of athletes, use of the defensors provided by rules and special footwear. To decrease in traumatism способствую^ also condition of the game field, accurate refereeing.

Contraindications for occupation F. all diseases are, at to-rykh high exercise and emotional stresses are contraindicated.

Medical control (see) for football players includes the current observation, medical examination, carrying out to lay down. - the prof. and rehabilitation actions, and also active participation in the organization of trainings according to norms of exercise stresses for various age groups.

Bibliography: Bashkirs V. F. Voz

a niknoveniye and treatment of injuries at athletes, M., 1981; Skaya N. D. and Sha-f Grayev e e in and M. G. Medical observations over football players, M., 1957; Training of football players, under the editorship of V. L. Kozlowski, M., 1978.

N. D. Grayevskaya, V. V. Moshkarkin.