SLUKHULUCHSHAYUSHCHY OPERATIONS — operative measures, the purpose to-rykh is improvement of hearing at patients with the relative deafness caused by defeat of the sound carrying out system of an ear. A necessary condition for S.'s carrying out of the lake is existence of a so-called cochlear reserve — normal and satisfactory function of neurosensory system. As an important condition serves also safety of function acoustical pipe (see).
The first attempts of carrying out the operations, in a crust, time combined by the term «slukhuluchshayushchy operations» belong to the second half 19 — the beginning is 20 century old. So, Kessel (J. Kessel, 1876) made a section of joints between acoustical stones and removal of a stirrup, Mio (S. of Miot, 1890) — mobilization of a stirrup at an otosclerosis, Berthold (E. Berthold, 1878) — plastic closing of perforation of a tympanic membrane. The operation which anticipated a modern miringostapedopeksiya was made to Matta (Matte, 1901) and Kativa-bar (Kachiwabara, 1906). However owing to imperfection of hardware (optics, tools), insufficiently clear idea of physiology of an acoustic organ, lack of effective antibacterial agents at the beginning of 20 century such trying was almost stopped.
In the subsequent J. Lempert (1938, 1941), Shambo (G. E. Sham-baugh, 1942), K. L. Hilovym (1952), etc. was developed operation at otosclerosis (see) — windowing of a labyrinth. Rosen (S. Rosen, 1952, 1953) offered operation of mobilization of a stirrup. Fowler (E. P. Fowler, 1956, 1960), Shi (J. J. Shea, 1958), Portmain (M. of Portmann, 1960), A. I. Kolomiychenko (1958. 1959, 1962), V. F. Nikitina (1959, 1961), N. A. Preobrazhensky (1961, 1962, 1963), S. N. Hechiiashvili (1962, 1963), etc. developed a stapedoplasty, a stapedectomy, interposition of a stirrup.
At the beginning of the 50th there was an interest in S. of the lake at relative deafness (see), caused hron. inflammation of a middle ear. Such operations began to designate further as tympanoplasty (see). In a crust, time apply allotransplants of these to replacement of the destroyed elements of the sound carrying out system obra-zo vaniye, plastic prostheses, autografts (a fascia, skin, etc.).
Began to make S. of the lake at the relative deafness caused by anomalies of development of an outside and middle ear a bit later (at the kept function of the sound perceiving system); they were developed by Shambo (1952), S. N. Lapchenko (1967), etc. At such S. islands use both achievements of otorhinolaryngology, and plastic surgery — recovery of a gleam of outside acoustical pass, a pneumatic drum cavity, tympanic membrane and other elements of the sound carrying out system. These actions are quite often combined with operations of cosmetic character — elimination of deformations of an auricle (see. Otoplasty ).
In recent years the group of the operative measures combined by the term «slukhosokhranyayushchy operations» is developed. These interventions are shown when there is an expressed destructive process on average to fish soup (caries of a bone, a cholesteatoma), however functions of the sound carrying out and sound perceiving systems either are kept, or broken unsharply. The purpose of such operations is removal patol. the center which is available on average to fish soup, and whenever possible preservation of function of the sound carrying out system. Slukhosokhranyayushchy operation is made as independent intervention or as the first stage of a tpmpanoplastika (see. Middle ear ).
Bibliography: Vulstein X. Slukhouluchshayushchy operations, the lane with it., M., 1972; Kolo of m and y h en to A. I. The first impressions about operation of mobilization of a stirrup, Vestn. otorinolar., No. 2, page 15, 1958; Lapchenko S. N. About slukhouluchshayushchy operations at inborn an atrezpa of an outside and middle ear, in the same place, JVs 2, page 91, 1967, bibliogr.; N and - to and ooze B. F. Experience of surgical treatment of patients with relative deafness at an otosclerosis by method of mobilization of a stirrup, in the same place, No. 6, page 39, 1959; Preobrazhensky Yu. B. Tympanoplasty, M., 1973, bibliogr.; it, Current state and ways of improvement of microsurgery of an ear, Tez. dokl. 8th congress otorinolaringol. USSR, page 37, M., 1982; Rutenburg D. M. Timpanoplastika * as a method of improvement of hearing at chronic purulent average otitises, Vestn. otorinolar., No. 4, page 19, 1956; X e h and - N and sh in and l and Page II. Questions of the theory and practice of slukhovosstanovitelny surgery, Tbilisi, 1963, bibliogr.; The X silt about in K. L. and P p e about r and e nanosecond to and y N. A. Otoskleroz, L., 1965; To about b of a k H. G. The middle ear, Chicago, 1959; S h a m b an u g h G. E. Surgery of tlie ear, Philadelphia — L., 1959.
Yu. B. Preobrazhensky.