SKODA Josef (Skoda Josef, 1805 — 1881) — the Czech therapist, one of founders of physical diagnostic methods of diseases.
Since 1825 lived in Vienna. In 1831 ended medical f-t Vienna un-that; in 1846 — 1871 professor of it un-that.
Y. Shkoda — the largest, along with K. Rokitansky, the representative of so-called new Vienna school, edge saw a problem of a hmeditsina first of all in development of methods of inspection of the patient and intravital evidence-based diagnosis (see Medicine). In the classical work (1839) devoted to percussion (see) and auscultations (see), it showed by kliniko-morphological comparisons that vyyavlyaekhmy at percussion and ate away sewing up symptoms are caused not by disease per se, but change of physical properties of fabrics in connection with ana-tomo-funktsional-nymi the disturbances in bodies caused by a disease. It defined also value of changes of cordial tones for recognition of heart troubles, dependence of emergence and the nature of cordial noise not only on a damage rate of valves, but also on the speed of a blood flow through the struck mouth, a possibility of emergence of noise in the absence of anatomic changes of valves. The symptoms of limited retraction of an apical beat described by it are called by his name during a systole at an adhesive pericarditis and a tympanic sound at percussion there are higher than the level of pleural exudate. Fight against abuses of bloodlettings, the reigning polypragmasy (unjustified, time of senseless purpose of a set of medical actions) accepted at Y. Skoda and his followers extreme form of therapeutic nihilism. He claimed that it is possible to distinguish, describe and understand a disease, but it is impossible even to dream of an opportunity to influence her any means. At the same time he aimed at evidence-based therapy, hl. obr. not pharmaceuticals. So Y. Shkoda was a supporter of such active method of treatment as a pleurocentesis at exudative pleurisy. The first in Vienna Y. Shkoda refused teaching in Latin and began to give lectures in German. He organized in clinic of department of chest and skin diseases. Its activity and scientific works played an essential role in the subsequent formation of cardiology, pulmonology and dermatology. Among his pupils there were F. Gebra and L. Traube. Works: Abhandlung iiber Perkussion und Aus-kultation, 1st prod., Wien, 1839, 6 prod., 1864 (Russian lane, M., 1852).
Bibliography: R at and to both A. N.
Zhizn's N and Josef's activity Skodas (1805 — 1881), Klin, medical, t. 34, No. 6,
page 81, 1956; Hornof Z. Novejsi poz-natky about zivotg a dile Josefa gkody, Cas. L£k. ces., sv. 110, s. 588, 1971; Sternberg M. Josef Skoda, Wien, 1924.
V. I. Borodulin.