SKLODOVSKAYA-KYURI Maria

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SKLODOVSKAYA-KYURI Maria (Sklodowska-Curie Marie; 1867 — 1934) — the physicist and the chemist, one of. founders of the doctrine about radio - activity, the Nobel Prize laureate on physics (1903, together with P. Curie and A. Bekkerel) and in chemistry (1911), the first woman — the member of the French Academy of medicine (1922), the Pole on a nationality.

SKLODOVSKAYa-KYuRI Maria

In 1895 ended natural: f-t Parisian un-that (Sorbonne)., In 1895 married P. Curie and began to work in his laboratory at School of industrial physics and chemistry. In 1903 protected dokt. the thesis on the subject «Research of Radioactive Materials». Since 1900 the teacher of physics in Ecole Normale (Sèvres). After death P. Curie in 1906 occupied its department in Parisian un-those, having become the first zhenshchi-ache-professor in the history of the French higher school. Since 1914 the head of physical and chemical department Ying-that the radium in Paris based with her active participation. In Parisian Ying-those radium together worked with it F. Zholio-Curie and her daughter I. Zholio-Curie. Since 1923 was the honorary director of the radium created on its initiative Ying-that in Warsaw.

The main works of M. Sclodovscaia-Curie are devoted to studying open And. In becquerel (1896) of the phenomenon of emission by uranium of the invisible beams getting through opaque environments, a cut she called radioactivity (see). She showed that radioactivity, except uranium, some more elements — thorium, polonium, radium have, established that activity of radium is approximately a million times higher, than activity of the same amount of uranium. It for the first time received chemically pure 'salt of radium that allowed it to define it at. weight to investigate its physical and chemical properties, including to measure a constant of disintegration, to show existence in radoactive radiation and - P ~ and * at-lu-whose, to find biol. action of ionizing radiation to discover radon. In 1910 together with the fr. physicist A. Debierne she for the first time received metal radium. In 1911 at the request of the Bruxelles radiological congress it made the first-ever standard of radium, to-ry is stored in the International bureau of measures and scales in Sèvres. In the years of World War I (1914 — 1918) M. Sklodovskaya-Curie created up to 200 mobile and stationary X-ray equipments, visited hospital, did x-ray films and trained sisters radiologists. M. Sklodovskaya-Curie prepared and read in Parisian un-those the first in world student teaching course of lectures on problems of radioactivity.

M. Sklodovskaya-Curie was a member of many academies and scientific about-in, since 1907 the member correspondent. The St. Petersburg academy of Sciences, since 1926 the honorary member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.



Works: Research of radioactive materials (radium, polonium, actinium, uranium, thorium, etc.), the lane with fr., M., 1904; Radioactivity, the lane with fr., M. — JI., 1947, M., 1960.

Bibliography: Curie Ie. Marie Curie, the lane with fr., M., 1977; Curie M. Pierre Curie — Ie. Curie, Marie Curie, the lane with fr., M., 1959, bibliogr.


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