SKIING includes different types of the physical exercises connected with movement on skis: cross-country skiing (ski race on the cross-country terrain), mountain skiing (slalom, giant slalom and downhill racing), ski jumping, Nordic combined (cross-country skiing and ski jumping) and biathlon (cross-country skiing and firing at a distance).
By the last three types of Hp competitions for women are not held.
Regular trainings of Hp promote strengthening of health, a hardening, expansion funkts, opportunities of an organism, to development of endurance, force, coordination of movements, education of courage, determination. The nervous system of the athlete becomes stronger, the metabolism, functions of bodies of blood circulation and breath improves. At occupations of Hp almost all groups of muscles are involved in work, the skier should perform big dynamic work in unit of time with a high metabolic cost. So, power consumption at cross-country skiing reaches 20 — 25 kcal in 1 min., a total expense, energy during the passing of long distances (30 — 50 km) — 2000 — 4000 kcal. The maximum quantity of the consumed oxygen at skiers of high qualification on 1 kg of weight reaches 75 — 86 ml in 1 min. for men and 60 — 65 ml in 1 min. — for women. Oxygen consumption and lung ventilation depend on the route and sliding of skis; lung ventilation reaches 100 — 200 l in 1 min. at a respiration rate 30 — 50 in 1 min. Oxygen consumption on unit of a way at beginners is higher, than at the qualified athletes. Heart rate during the intense trainings and competitions increases to 150 — 200 in 1 min., the ABP increases by 30 — 50 mm of mercury., the lose of weight makes 1,5 — 5 kg. The nature of these changes at skiers of various sports qualification is expressed unequally. During the cross-country skiing, especially during the overcoming rises and accelerations, power ensuring work is carried out generally owing to reaction of anaerobic oxidation. The recovery period lasts 6 — 24 hours, after the intense competitions on long distances it more long and that is shorter, than fitness of the athlete is higher.
Power expenditure and expressiveness fiziol, reactions of blood circulation and breath in mountain skiing and at ski jumping are less considerable. Big requirements are imposed at the same time to c. N of page, function of visual and vestibular analyzers that promotes development of coordination of movements, bystry motor reaction, sense of equilibrium.
The trained skiers have in proportion the developed muscles, high vital capacity of lungs (5 — 6 l and more), slow pulse (40 — 60 blows in 1 min.), rather low the ABP (100 — 120/60 — 70 mm of mercury.), oversizes of heart (volume of 800 — 1150 ml) of j that promotes more economical work of cardiovascular system.
It is possible to train children in walking at skis with 4 — 5-year age, to begin special occupations — at younger school age, boys — from 9 — 11 years with restriction of a distance from 0,5 to 2 km are allowed to competitions after several years of occupations of the girl from 9 — 10 years.
At occupations of Hp are sometimes possible attritions (see), bruises (see), freezing injuries (see) owing to the wrong selection and failure of footwear and clothes, defects in a technique of training, insufficient readiness of engaged. At occupations mountain skiing as a result of falling severe injuries are possible, at insufficient tempering — overcooling. Prevention of diseases and injuries at occupations of Hp — thorough training of stock and regimentals (the clothes shall be rather easy, but warm and protecting from wind, footwear — free and convenient, woolen socks and a hat are obligatory), observance of meteorological restrictions during the holding the trainings and competitions established in the USSR for all geographical zones, the correct technique of training, regular medical control (see) 21 self-checkings (see. Self-checking of the athlete ). Contraindications to occupations of Hp correspond to the general contraindications to occupations physical culture and sport.
Hp — one of main types of sport in the Soviet system physical. education. In various forms it is widely applied in physical. education of children and the studying youth, in the Soviet Army, in sports work of collectives of physical culture, in work of groups of health. To hp it is presented in all 5 steps of the All-Union sports complex «It is ready to work and defense of the USSR» (see). Hp — the main part of the program of the winter Olympic Games.
Walks on skis, ski trips, driving from mountains, ski tourism are widely used for rest and improvement. Walking on skis — one of the most widespread, public and easily dosed physical. exercises for persons of any age and different level physical. readiness. Ski walks use also as one of means to lay down. physical cultures.
Bibliography: Human physiology, under the editorship of N. V. Zimkin, page 429, M., 1975; F e-mines N. A. and Filin V. P. Age features of physical training, page of j 02, M., 1972; Yakovlev N. N. Biokhp.Pya of sport, page 228, M., 1974; AstrandP. The lake of a. R about d a h 1 K. Textbook of work physiology,» N.Y., 1970.
D. D. Donskoy.