SKELETON

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SKELETON (skeleton) — system firm (at vertebral hl. obr. bone and cartilaginous) the educations making a skeleton of a body, performing functions of a support and protection of parts of a body against bruises, and also bearing some other biological functions. Along with firm allocate also soft S. which is the connective tissue basic device connecting, surrounding and supporting all bodies carry the cellulose presented to friable fibrous to Krom connecting fabric (see), sinews (see), sheaves (see), aponeuroses, fascia (see), joint capsules (see. Joints ), fibrous vaginas, the covers of internals formed by dense fibrous connecting fabric. The concept «soft skeleton, or soft skeleton» in 1848 was entered by I. P. Matyushenkov.

Bone S. of the person is a support for soft tissues and the place of an attachment of muscles and nek-ry internals. The page together with the joint capsules, sheaves and other educations fastening its parts makes a passive part of the office of the movement since basic function C. at rest or during the movement of a body and its parts is possible only with active participation muscles (see). The page at the person performs protective function in relation to internals. So, skull (see) is a receptacle of a brain, backbone (see) — a spinal cord, thorax (see) and basin (see) — internals. Bone S. takes part in a metabolism, especially mineral since. bone (see) it is capable to give quickly to blood of substance, being its part, promoting maintenance homeostasis (see). Existence of red marrow in spongy substance of bones and marrowy cavities causes value C. in hemopoiesis (see) and immutsny reactions of an organism.

A comparative anatomy

At animals allocate outside and internal S. Naruzhny S. at different animals has various structure and an origin. At many invertebrates it is a secretory product of a skin epithelium, napr, a cuticle of an earthworm, the chitin of arthropods (which is quite often impregnated with lime and reaching considerable hardness), limy sinks of mollusks. Outside S. at vertebrata appears in the form of scales at fishes. From cheshuy at the highest fishes cover bones of the head develop and shoulder girdle (see). Scales of fishes and skin ossification of land vertebrata (turtles, crocodiles, etc.), performing protective function, are always supplemented internal S.

Vnutrenny S. at the lowest animals is developed poorly and represents system of the connective tissue educations sometimes including rogopodobny fibers (e.g., spongin of sponges), silicon or limy needles. Internal S. at cephalopod mollusks is presented by a cartilage. At vertebrate animals internal S. is always well developed. At acranial it webby, at the lowest fishes — cartilaginous, at the highest fishes and land vertebrata is constructed preferential of a bone tissue. Internal S. of vertebrate animals consists of several departments different by origin: the central flexible core — the axial S. passing in the head into a neurocranium and supplemented by a visceral skeleton (see), and the additional, forming S. of extremities. Axial S. at lowest vertebral (Cyclostoma) is presented by a cellular tyazh with a strong elastic cover — a back string, or a chord (chorda dorsalis), edges remains for life; at the highest vertebrata the chord exists at early stages of embryonic development, and then is replaced with a backbone. Additional S. of extremities at fishes is formed by the cartilaginous or bone fin beams supporting fins. The shoulder girdle is covered at the highest fishes with the cover bones connecting it with a calvaria. At land animal S. of pair extremities it is difficult dismembered and reaches the considerable sizes.

The page of the person was undergone phylogenetic by a number of changes in comparison with S. of four-footed and anthropomorphous monkeys in connection with development of bipedalism. The backbone of the person gained big elasticity and bends (see. Kyphosis , Lordosis ). Thanks to the hardness the backbone gained ability to maintain weight of the head, trunk and extremities, and bends and elasticity caused maintenance of balance in vertical position and mitigation of pushes during the walking, run and jumps. Capacity of a neurocranium in connection with increase in a brain increased, and the front department underwent a reduction owing to weakening of a functional load on the dentoalveolar device. The thorax of the person became flat and wide. The hand was exempted from function of movement and turned into body of work. Basic and locomotory functions caused massiveness of bones of the lower extremity and a vaulted structure feet (see).

Embryology

Fig. 1. The diagrammatic representation of localization of precartilaginous accumulations of a mesenchyma (are designated by shading) at a germ of the person on 4 — the 5th week of pre-natal development: 1 — a chord; 2 — an occipital complex; 3 — a backbone; 4 — a shovel; 5 — laying of bones of hands; 6 — a palmar plate; 7 — edges; 8 — a basin; 9 — laying of bones of legs.
Fig. 2. The diagrammatic representation of localization of primary ossification centers (are specified in black color) in a skeleton of a germ of the person on the 3rd month of pre-natal development: 1 — the interpariyetalny center; 2 — a scaly part of a temporal bone; 3 — the supraoktsipitalny center; 4 — an occipital arch; 5 — a nervous handle; 6 — a clavicle; 7 — a shovel; 8 — a humeral bone; 9 — edges; 10 — an ileal bone; 11 — a femur; 12 — a fibular bone; 13 — a tibial bone; 14 — an ulna; 15 — a beam bone; 16 — a distal phalanx; 17 — an upper jaw; 18 — a frontal bone; 19 — a malar; 20 — a mandible.

In S.'s development the person there are several stages: connective tissue (webby), cartilaginous and bone. At a germ of the person 9 mm long on 4 — the precartilaginous accumulations of a mesenchyma corresponding to a connective tissue stage of development of S. (fig. 1) clearly are expressed to the 5th week of pre-natal development. On 2 — the 3rd month of pre-natal development the mesenchyma will be transformed to cartilaginous tissue, and S. of a germ becomes cartilaginous. The exception is made only by bones of a calvaria, the most part of bones of a facial skull and a clavicle (see), to-rye do not pass a cartilaginous stage of development. During the same period process of ossification begins. The first points (kernels, the centers) of ossification appear in jaws and a clavicle on the 2nd month of development, throughout 2 — the 4th month of development the majority of primary (diaphyseal) ossification centers in a diaphysis of tubular bones, in bodies of the majority short and in flat bones (fig. 2) is put. Secondary (epiphyseal) ossification centers at the end of the fetal period appear only in a distal epiphysis femoral and a proximal epiphysis tibial bones. In an epiphysis of other bones of an ossification center are put after the birth of the child.

Age changes

S. of the newborn consists of 270 bones formed by a coarse-fibered bone tissue. The ground mass of bones is constructed of spongy substance. Compact substance forms only a thin coat on the surface of bones. On 1 — - m years of life of the child are put secondary ossification centers in an epiphysis of long and short tubular bones, in bones of a wrist and a tarsus (except for the collision, calcaneal and cubical bones ossifying till the birth). They grow and change the form therefore between a diaphysis and an epiphysis of a bone there is only a cartilaginous plate — an epiphyseal cartilage, for the account to-rogo a bone continues to grow in length. Osteogene function of a periosteum causes growth of a bone in thickness. During this period there is a restructuring of a bone: the coarse-fibered bone tissue is replaced with lamellar, the marrowy cavity is formed, red marrow is partially replaced with yellow. On 8 — the 9th year of life of the child and up to 17 — 18 years additional (apofizarny) ossification centers in shoots, muscular hillocks and crests of bones appear. According to A. Andronesku (1970), in S. it is put apprx. 800 ossification centers, from to-rykh 120 appear in bones of a skull, 295 — in a backbone, 101 — in edges and on 140 — in bones of top and bottom extremities. To approach of puberty in S.'s bones there is an union of bone elements, epiphyseal cartilages are replaced with a bone tissue. To 21 — to the 24th to years the sinosto-zirovaniye of bones comes to an end and they cease to grow in length. S.'s development is under the regulating influence of hemadens and a nervous system.

Involute (senile) changes of S. represent long fiziol. the process connected with disbolism, in particular mineral metabolism (see), and depending on the changing conditions of life activity of an organism { see the Old age, aging). Time of emergence of senile changes in S. and rate of their increase at different people are various. They can come to light, since 40 — 45 years, and at women for 6 — 8 years earlier, than at men.

Fig. 3. Macrodrugs of a mandible: and — a normal mandible; — the atrophy of an alveolar part of a mandible caused by loss of teeth.

Senile changes in bones are expressed in their osteoporotichesky reorganization (see. Osteoporosis ), especially in joints, in a partial razvolokneniye of a cortical layer of a bone and strengthening of a relief of their surface. Changes of a relief of bones at men are expressed more sharply, than at women. It is noted that different departments of S. grow old not at the same time. Before everything bones of fingers of a brush, and also chest and lumbar departments of a backbone are exposed to senile changes. In a backbone senile changes are expressed preferential by ossification of sheaves and emergence of a senile kyphosis of chest department, to-ry arises at women usually later 50, and at men is after 60 years. The atrophy of bones does not come even at advanced age, an exception is the mandible; with loss of teeth an alveolar part of a bone almost completely disappears, and height of a body of a bone decreases by 1/3 and more (fig. 3).

Anatomy

In bone S. of the person allocate axial S. (skeleton to an axia-1a), the skull (see), a backbone (see), or a rachis, and a thorax belongs to Krom (see); additional S. (skeleton appendiculare) presented by bones top and bottom extremities. The page of an upper extremity includes a shoulder girdle (see) or a belt of an upper extremity (cingulum membri sup.), and S. of a free upper extremity (skeleton membri sup. liberi). Page of the lower extremity it is formed by a pelvic girdle (see), or a belt of the lower extremity (cingulum membri inf.), and S. of a free lower extremity (skeleton membri inf. liberi). The page of the adult contains more than 200 bones, from them 29 bones of a skull, 26 — a backbone, 25 bones are made by edges and a breast, 64 bones are a part of upper extremities and 62 — structure of the lower extremities. The diagrammatic representation of a skeleton of the person is shown on p. 364. The number of bones of S. can change depending on existence of this or that quantity additional and sesamoids (see), it is preferential in a skull, brushes and feet.

Blood supply S.'s bones it is carried out at the expense of branches of nearby arteries (main, muscular, fascial, etc.). They form textures and networks in to a periosteum (see) also get into a compact layer of a bone through feed throats. Vascular networks in each layer of a periosteum have the features and are connected among themselves by a large number of an anastomosis. According to M. G. Prives and N. B. Likhacheva (1955), long tubular bones have several power supplies, the basic from to-rykh is the main diaphyseal artery, and additional — branches of arteries of a periosteum and additional diaphyseal arteries. Arteries of an epiphysis in development of a bone go to its ossification center. Until the long tubular bone consists of the separate parts developing from independent ossification centers, arteries of these parts do not anastomose among themselves. In process of merge of parts of a bone the uniform arterial network is formed. Short tubular monoepi-fizarny bones have one group of epiphyseal arteries. Edges are krovo-supplied by a large number of the short arteries getting into spongy substance. Arteries of short bones enter them from all directions and go to the center of a bone.

Veins of bones form from a capillary network of marrow. They form in bones of a texture then come to a surface, in tubular bones — on border of an epiphysis and diaphysis, and in short — near joint surfaces. The caliber of veins of spongy substance by 3 — 4 times exceeds caliber of arteries. Age changes of an angioarchitecture of S. as marks out L. K. Semenov (1978), are connected with structural change of spongy substance of a bone, namely with the direction of bone beams as adaptive education for counteraction to pressure forces and a tension. Limf, vessels of bones are a little studied. There are only separate instructions on existence limf, vessels in the bones going on the course of blood vessels.

A. A. Otelin and sotr. the total characteristic of an innervation of a periosteum of all bones is given. The periosteum of each bone is innervated in most cases from several segments of a spinal cord, a periosteum of bones of a skull — branches of cherepnomozgovy (cranial) and spinal nerves. In layers of a periosteum nerve fibrils form textures and terminate in the free and encapsulated nerve terminations. In a bone nerve fibrils also form a texture and various look nerve terminations in a bone tissue and marrow. The richest innervation is available in the field of an epiphysis and metaphyses of tubular bones.

The sizes and S.'s proportions depend on a floor, standard and specific features. The page of the woman differs from men's in thinner and easy bones, bigger curvature of lumbar department of a backbone, a short and wide sacrum, a low and wide basin, rather big width and rotundity of a skull, narrower and long thorax, etc. Together with muscles, hypodermic cellulose and other anatomic educations of S. exerts impact on a relief of a body. Use bone ledges of S. in anthropology (see), and also medical practice, defining on a body of the patient of border and position of bodies, concerning elements C. Kostya S., a little exposed to destruction, in a paleoanthropology are the main source for studying morfol. evolutions of the person, and also matter in court. - medical practice (see the Bone, in the medicolegal relation). Specially processed S. of the person and animals on natural sheaves or artificially connected by a wire and mounted is the important visual aid during the studying of morphology and a valuable exhibit of anatomic and other museums.

The descriptive anatomy considers a shape of bones at the adult, proceeding from average norm. However each bone and all S. in general at certain people have a number of specific features, and borders of their normal options are very wide.

Radioanatomy

Rentgenol. bone S.'s image allows to reveal all options of a form and a structure of bones (see. Bone, radioanatomy ) and joints (see Joints, a radioanatomy), and also additional bones, to-rye meet in all! S.'s departments, a thicket — in a skeleton groans, and the joint educations kompensatorno developing under the influence of a functional load in the locations of synovial bags or close contact of the rubbing bone surfaces, sesamoids, etc.

The pictures made in different phases of the movement allow to study kinematics of a musculoskeletal system and to judge both correctness anatomic a ratio of bones, and their functional full value.

The x-ray film represents two-dimensional display to the planes (on a film) three-dimensional volume bone body. Make pictures in two co-perpendicular projections for a reconstruction of its volume, according to the sagittal and frontal planes of a human body. In some cases for identification of these or those anatomic details do additional pictures in intermediate positions ily apply special projections (see. Polyposition research ), at to-rykh use various ratios of the central beam with the anatomic planes. Such projections apply generally at a research of the skull having a set of the details of different density giving a difficult total picture on the roentgenogram.

Rentgenol. the method gives the chance to track development and ossification of bones of S. since the period of pre-natal development. Process of ossification begins with emergence of ossification centers in the places defined for each bone and in certain terms, synchronously in both extremities or on both sides (see above). Ossification centers are divided into the main (diaphyseal and epiphyseal) and additional (apofizarny). At the expense of the main the skeleton of all bones forms; at the expense of additional, to-rye appear after the main, this skeleton is modelled, gets an external relief and specific features. The number of base points of ossification for each bone strictly certain, number of additional — is variable. Sometimes they do not merge with the main array and form additional bones of Page.

Fig. 4. Roentgenograms of area of an elbow joint (direct projection): and — the newborn (ossification centers are absent); — the teenager of 14 years (epiphyseal and apofizarny ossification centers are specified by shooters).

Age evolution of S. is an indicator of physical development and the general morfol. differentiations of an organism. By the time of the birth a diaphysis of all tubular bones ossifies. Ossification centers are available in bodies and arches of vertebrae, in edges and bones of a skull, and also in a distal epiphysis of a femur, a proximal epiphysis of a tibial bone, in calcaneal, collision and cubical bones. Judge by a condition of these ossification centers about to-noshennosti and a maturity of the newborn (see. Donoshennost ). At 40% of newborns the ossification center in a head of a humeral bone is defined. After the birth about development it is accepted to judge by a condition of ossification in a skeleton of a brush and a radiocarpal joint (see Age bone). Each joint is characterized by certain terms of ossification and a certain number of ossification centers. Rentgenol. the picture of joints at children's age considerably differs from that at the adult and has the distinctive features depending on a phase of ossification (fig. 4) for each age period. Process of a sinostozirovaniye, i.e. merge of independently ossifying parts (a diaphysis, an epiphysis, apophyses) in a single whole is of great importance for development of tubular bones.

Fig. 5. Roentgenogram of area of a radiocarpal joint of the teenager of 15 years (direct projection): are specified by shooters diafizar-but-zpifizarnye regions of growth of beam and elbow bones.

The diaphyseal and epiphyseal cartilaginous zone (epiphyseal cartilage) is the region of growth of tubular bones in length. Regions of growth in each bone are displayed by the strip of an enlightenment having the configuration inherent only in this bone (fig. 5). In the course of ossification width of region of growth gradually decreases, the ends of a diaphysis and epiphysis become hilly and come to contact. There is a site of an excess osteogenesis which received the name of an epiphyseal callosity, edges are represented cross tyazh different width — a so-called epiphyseal seam. After approach of a synostosis (see) this tyazh is traced for a row of years.

In process of aging of an organism in S. there are involute changes which are expressed in osteoporosis of bones with thinning of a bast layer and expansion of a marrowy cavity in a diaphysis, thinning and reduction of quantity of bone beams in an epiphysis and spongy bones. In joint cartilages, in intervertebral disks there are dystrophic processes leading to their gradual wear. Narrowing of x-ray joint cracks and intervertebral spaces results. Loss by cartilages of buffer properties involves emergence of compensatory proliferative changes in a type of a sclerosis of subchondral plates of joint surfaces, bodies of vertebrae and bone growths on their edges. Dystrophic process is expressed also by consolidation, calcification of the sumochno-copular device, a fibroplastic osteogenesis in sinews and aponeuroses in places of their attachment to bones. All combined leads to change of a relief of a bone towards its strengthening and a dekonfiguration of joints. Involute changes of S. as well as its development, happen at the same time in symmetric departments.

The histology of the bone tissue which is bone S.'s basis is described in the article Bone; the connecting fabric which is soft S.'s basis — in article Connecting fabric.

Methods of a research

the Main method of a research C. is X-ray analysis (see). In a wedge: to practice as additional methods apply tomography (see), fluorography (see), artrografiya (see), and also radio isotope, microscopic and other types of researches (see. Bone, methods of a research ).

Pathology — see articles according to names of individual diseases (e.g., Osteomyelitis , Osteitis , Changes , Rickets , Chondrodystrophia etc.), and also articles devoted to separate parts of a skeleton (e.g., Brush , Backbone , Foot , Skull ).

LIST OF BONES OF THE SKELETON

Diagrammatic representation of a skeleton of the person: and — an anterior aspect; — the back view; 1 — a frontal bone (os frontale); 2 — a nasal bone (os nasale); 3 — cervical vertebrae (vertebrae eervicales); 4 — a clavicle (clavicula); 5 — a humeral bone (humerus); 6 — edges (costae); 7 — lumbar vertebrae (vertebrae lumbales); 8 — an ileal bone (os ilium); 9 — a sacrum (os sacrum); 10 — a pubic bone (os pubis); 11 — an ischium (os ischii); 12 — a femur (os femoris); 13 — a patella (patella)'; 14 — a fibular bone (fibula); 15 — a tibial bone (tibia); 16 — plusnevy bones (ossa metatarsi); 17 — phalanxes of fingers of foot (phalanges digitorum pedis); 18 — bones of a tarsus (ossa tarsi); 19 — phalanxes of fingers of a brush (phalanges digitorum manus); 20 — metacarpal bones (ossa metacarpi); 21 — bones of a wrist (ossa carpi); 22 — an ulna (ulna); 23 — a beam bone (radius); 24 — chest vertebrae (vertebrae thoracicae); 25 — a midsternum (corpus sterni); 26 — the handle of a breast (manubrium sterni); 27 — the I edge (costa I); 28 — a mandible (mandibula); 29 — a malar (os zygomaticum); 30 — a temporal bone (os temporale); 31 — a parietal bone (os parietale); 32 — a tailbone (os coccygis); 33 — an occipital bone (os occipitale); 34 — a shovel (scapula); 35 — an astragalus (talus); 36 — a calcaneus (calcaneus)

The list included the names of bones of a skeleton of the person accepted in Parisian, Jens, which and Basel anatomic nomenclatures (PNA, JNA, BNA), and also * the nek-ry names which are not included in one of nomenclatures, but found in literature.

1. Accessoria ossa carpi, additional bones of a wrist; are located on palmar and a dorsum of a brush, usually merge with this or that constant bone.

2. Accessoria ossa tarsi, additional bones of a tarsus; are located on bottom and a dorsum of foot, usually merge from this or that constant kostyo.

3. Acetabuli os, s. cotyloideum, bone of an acetabular hollow; the non-constant bone, appears in a cartilage between an ileal and pubic bone on 9 — the 12th year of life. By the time of puberty usually connects to a pubic bone.

4. Acromiale os, bone of an akromion (humeral shoot of a shovel); the additional bone which is found in 5% of cases forms the ledge of an akromion which sometimes is jointed with it by means of a joint.

5. Astragalus, see Talus.

6. Atlas (PNA, JNA, BNA), the Atlas, or the I cervical vertebra which is jointed with an occipital bone of a skull; short unpaired bone. Ossification centers are put: two — in side masses, two — in a lobby and two — in back arches; ossification centers in the side masses and a back arch appear on the 3rd month of pre-natal development, in a front arch — on the 1st year of life; connection of separate parts of the Atlas happens between the 5th and 9th t for years of life.

7. Axis (PNA), s. epistropheus (JNA, BNA), axial vertebra, epistrofy, II cervical vertebra; short unpaired bone. Ossification centers are put: in a body — on 3 — the 5th month, in an arch (two) — on 2 — the 5th month of pre-natal development, in tooth — on the 5th month. Connection of separate parts of an axial vertebra happens at the age of 8 — 9 years.

8. Basilare os (BNA), s. sphenoocc-rpi-tale os, the main, or wedge-shaped zaty-lochnaya bone. Understand the grown together wedge-shaped and occipital bones as this name. The synchondrosis between them ossifies at the age of 14 — 20 years.

9. Brachii os (JNA), see Humerus.

10. Calcaneum secundarium os, s. calcaneus secundarius, second calcaneus; the trihedral or many-sided bone size about a pea which is located at anterosuperior edge of a calcaneus; anomaly of development.

11. Calcaneus (PNA, JNA, BNA), calcaneus; short bone of a tarsus. Ossification centers are put: primary — on 5 — the 6th month of pre-natal development, secondary (epiphyseal) — on 8 — the 11th years of life; connection of separate parts happens at the age of 16 — 20 years.

12. Calcaneus secundarius, see Calcaneum secundarium os.

13. Capitatum os (PNA, JNA, BNA), capitate bone; short bone of a distal number of a wrist. Ossification centers Are put: girls at the age of 1 — 41/g month, at boys — since the birth to the 5th month have lives.

14. Centrale carpi os, central bone of a wrist; the additional bone which is located between both rows of bones of a wrist. It is put on 2 ~ the m month of pre-natal development, soon grows together with a rudiment of a navicular. In nek-ry cases remains as a separate bone.

15. Clavicula (PNA, JNA, BNA), clavicle; long tubular bone of a shoulder girdle. Ossification centers are put: in a body — on the 2nd month of pre-natal development, in the sternal end — between 16th and 20th lives; the body and the sternal end connect at the age of 20 — 25 years.

16. Coccygis os (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. vertebrae caudales, tailbone, coccygeal bone; four rudimentary coccygeal vertebras which grew together in one bone. Accretion of coccygeal vertebrae begins with three lower vertebrae, to-rye grow together with upper on the 30th year of life.

17. Concha nasal is inferior (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. turbinatum os, lower nasal sink; the curved pair bone of a facial skull lying in a nasal cavity. Ossifies on the 5th month of pre-natal development.

18. Coracoideum os, coronoid («carrion crows») bone; at the person exists as a coracoid of a shovel, it is in rare instances isolated.

19. Costa decima fluctuans, the X fluctuating edge. In nek-ry cases the cartilage of the X edge does not connect to a cartilage of the IX edge, and freely comes to an end in muscles of an abdominal wall, like XI and XII edges.

20. Coslae (PNA, JNA, BNA), edges; long spongy bones (12 couples) participating in formation of a thorax. In an edge distinguish a bone part (os costale) and a cartilaginous part, or a costal cartilage (cartilago costalis). Ossification centers are put: in average edges at the end of the 2nd month of pre-natal development, in top and bottom edges — a bit later; secondary (epiphyseal) ossification centers appear in a head and a hillock of an edge on 10 — the 11th year of life. Connection of parts of an edge happens at the age of 19 — 25 years.

21. Costae arcuariae, see Costae spuriae.

22. Costae arcuariae affixae, the edges attached (to a breast), forming a costal arch. This term designate VIII, IX, X pairs of edges.

23. Costae arcuariae fluctuantes, see CosJtae fluctuantes.

24. Costae fluctuantes (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. costae arcuariae fluctuantes, the fluctuating edges; XI and XII edges which svo-'bodno are coming to an end in muscles of an abdominal wall. Unlike other edges, apofizarny ossification centers in their hillocks are not put.

25. Costae spuriae (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. costae arcuariae, false edges; the lower 5 pairs of edges, the front ends to-rykh do not connect directly to a breast, and connect to a cartilage of an overlying edge (except XI and XII edges).

26. Costae sternales, see Costae verae.

27. Costae verae (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. costae sternales, true, or sternal, edges; seven pairs of upper edges connecting the cartilages to a breast.

28. Costale os (PNA, JNA, BNA), pe berny bone; bone part of an edge.

29. Cotyloideum os, see Acetabuli os.

30. Coxae os (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. inno-minatum os, pelvic, or anonymous bone; the pair flat bone of a pelvic girdle formed as a result of an union of ileal, pubic and sciatic bones. Parts of a haunch bone grow together among themselves at girls at the age of 16 years, at young men — in 18 years. Connection of separate ossification centers and an union of apophyses with bodies of bones comes to an end approximately at the age of 20 years.

31. Cubitus, see Ulna.

32. Cuboides os (JNA), see Cuboideum os.

33. Cuboideum os (PNA, BNA), s. cuboides os (JNA), cubical bone; short bone of a tarsus. The ossification center in 2/z cases appears by the time of the birth, in Vs cases — on 3 — the 6th month of life and even at the end of the first year; ossification comes to an end in the pubertal period.

34. Cuboideum secundarium os, second cubical bone; an additional bone of a tarsus on a bottom surface of foot between cubical, calcaneal and carinate bones.

35. Cuneiforme intermedium os (PNA), s. Guneiforme secundum os (JNA, BNA), intermediate, or second wedge-shaped bone; short bone of a distal number of a tarsus. The ossification center appears on 3 — the 4th year of life; completely ossifies in the pubertal period.

36. Cuneiforme laterale os (PNA), s. cuneiforme tertium os (BNA, JNA), lateral or third wedge-shaped bone; short bone of a distal number of a tarsus. The ossification center appears on the first year of life; ossification comes to an end in the pubertal period.

37. Cuneiforme mediale os (PNA), s. cuneiforme primum os (JNA, BNA), medial, or first wedge-shaped bone; short bone of a distal number of bones of a tarsus. The ossification center appears on the 2nd year of life; ossification comes to an end in the pubertal period.

38. Cuneiforme primum os, see Cuneiforme mediale os.

39. Cuneiforme secundum os, see Cuneiforme intermedium os.

40. Cuneiforme tertium os, see Cuneiforme laterale os.

41. Epactale quadratum os, see Interpa-rietale os.

42. Epactalia ossa, see Intercalaria ossa.

43. Epilepticum os, see Interparietale os.

44. Epiptericum os, the bone which is formed in the field of pterion; the inserted bone relating to rare anomalies of a skull.

45. Episternaiia ossa, see Suprasterna-lia ossa.

46. Epistropheus, see Axis.

47. Ethmoidale os (PNA, BNA), s. eth-moides os (JNA), sievebone; the unpaired pneumatic bone which is located on border of a brain and facial skull; participates in formation of a front cranial pole, eye-sockets and a nasal cavity. Bone of a cartilaginous origin; on 4chya month of pre-natal development ossification centers in average nasal sinks, on the 5th month in upper, by the time of the birth — in a trellised plate, on the 6th month of life — two ossification centers in an orbital plate, on 2 one or one-two years of an ossification center in a cock crest appear, in a perpendicular plate process of ossification happens at the age of 6 — 8 years; final formation of a bone comes to an end at the age of 12 — 14 years.

48. Ethmoides os (JNA), see Ethmoidale os.

49. Fabella, fabella; the sesamoid put at the place of an attachment of sinews of a gastrocnemius muscle on a femur; its size fluctuates within 3,5 — 14 mm. Cartilaginous bookmark appears on the 10th year of life, on the 17th — the ossification center appears, by 18 years the cartilage ossifies.

50. Femoris os (PNA, JNA), s. femur (BNA), femur; long tubular bone of the lower extremity. The ossification center in a diaphysis appears on 40 — the 45th day of pre-natal development; the lower epiphyseal kernel of ossification (Beklar's kernel) appears shortly before the birth; the ossification center in a head develops on 6 — the 12th month after the birth, in a big spit — on 2 — the 5th year, in small — on 8 — the 11th year. Final formation of a bone comes to an end to 20 — to the 24th years.

51. Femur (BNA), see Femoris os.

52. Fibula (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. perone, fibular bone; the long tubular bone of a shin located from the lateral party. The ossification center in a diaphysis appears at the end of the 2nd month of pre-natal development, in the lower epiphysis — on the 2nd year of life, in an upper epiphysis — on 4 — the 5th year, ossification comes to an end at the age of 20 — 21.

53. Fibularia accessoria ossa, s. pero-neum os, additional fibular bones; sesamoids of a distal sinew of a long fibular muscle, the located knaruzh from a cubical bone.

54. Fonticulorum ossa, the rodnichkovy bones which are formed on site fontanels as a result of emergence of additional ossification centers.

55. Frontale os (PNA, JNA, BNA) — a frontal bone; unpaired flat pneumatic bone of a neurocranium; participates in formation of a calvaria, front cranial pole, nasal cavity and eye-sockets. Develops as a cover bone. Ossification centers in frontal hillocks are put on the 2nd month of pre-natal development, on the 2nd year of life both half of a bone merge; ossification comes to an end at the age of 6 — 7 years.

56. Hamatum os (PNA, JNA, BNA), uncinatum; short bone of a distal number of a wrist. The ossification center appears at girls on 5 — the 10th month of life, at boys — on 6 — the 12th month, the hook of a bone ossifies approximately at the age of 11 years.

57. Humerus (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. brachii os (JNA), humeral bone; long tubular bone of an upper extremity. The ossification center in a diaphysis is put on 6 — the 7th week of pre-natal development, epiphyseal ossification centers appear in different terms after the birth, in top end in number of three, in lower — four; ossification comes to an end to 20 — to the 24th years.

58. Hyoides os (JNA), see Hyoideum os.

59. Hyoideum os (PNA, BNA), s. hyoides os (JNA), hypoglossal bone; the unpaired bone of a viscerocranium lying between a mandible and a thyroid cartilage of a throat with to-rymi it connects ligaments and muscles. Develops from the second visceral and the first branchiate arches. The body and big horns ossify from several ossification centers by the time of the birth, in small horns of an ossification center appear on the 14th year of life; ossification comes to an end to 20 — to the 24th years.

60. Ilium os (PNA, JNA, BNA), ileal bone; the pair flat bone which is a part of a haunch bone. Primary ossification center is put in a body of a bone on the 3rd month of pre-natal development, apofizarny ossification centers appear in an ileal crest, top and bottom ileal awns at the age of 13 — 16 years; ossification comes to an end by 20 years.

61. Incae os, see Interparietale os.

62. Incae tripartitum os, see Interparietale os. -

63. Incisivum os, s. interraaxillare os, intermaxilla, praemaxilla, incisal bone; it is found in the person in case of existence of an incisal seam. It is usually spliced with an upper jaw.

64. Incus (PNA, JNA, BNA), anvil; the acoustical stone located in a drum cavity. Derivative of the first visceral arch.

65. Innominatum os, see Coxae os.

66. Intercalaria ossa, s. epactalia ossa, inserted bones; additional bones of a skull. Distinguish true and false inserted bones. True inserted bones are formed as a result of anomaly of development of this or that bone (e.g., a double parietal bone, doubling of scales of a temporal bone) and emergence of additional ossification centers. Carry bones of seams to false inserted bones.

67. Intercuneiforme os, mezhklinovid-ny bone; the additional bone of a tarsus, is located between medial and intermediate wedge-shaped bones.

68. Intermaxilla, see Incisivum os.

69. Intermaxillare os, see Incisivum os.

70. Intermedium antebrachii os, cm. Triangulare os.

71. Intermetatarseum os (Gruberi), intermetatarsal bone (Grubera); the additional bone of a tarsus, is between I and II plusnevy, medial and intermediate wedge-shaped bones; meets in 7,5% of cases. Often sinostozirut with the next bones.

72. Internasalia ossa, internasal bones; sometimes meet in a seam between nasal bones.

73. Interparietale os, s. epactale quadratum os, epilepticum os, incae os, incae tripartitum os, transversum cranii os, interparietal bone; the upper part of scales of an occipital bone separated by a cross seam from its other parts; by additional seams it can be divided into two or three parts (interparietale bipartitum os, interparietale tripartitum os); anomaly of development of an occipital bone. At many vertebrate animals it is observed constantly.

74. Ischii os (PNA, JNA, BNA), ischium; the pair bone which is a part of a haunch bone. Ossification centers are put in a body of a bone on the 4th month of pre-natal development, in a sciatic awn — at the age of 17 — 18 years, in a sciatic hillock — in 21 — 24 years; ossification comes to an end by 24th years.

75. Jugale os, see Zygomaticum os.

76. Kerckringii os (processus), kerkrin-giyev bone (shoot); the median part of scales of an occipital bone which is taking part in restriction of a big (occipital) opening.

77. Lacrimale os (PNA, JNA, BNA), the lacrimal bone; the pair bone of a facial skull located in an eye-socket. The ossification center is put on the 3rd month of an antenatal life.

78. Lunatum os (PNA, JNA, BNA), semi-lunar bone; bone of a proximal number of a wrist. The ossification center is put at girls in 3 — 4 years, boys have about 4 years.

79. Malare os, see Zygomaticum os.

80. Malleus (PNA, JNA, BNA), hammer; the pair acoustical stone located in a drum cavity, a derivative of the first visceral arch.

81. Mandibula (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. maxilla inferior, mandible; unpaired bone of a facial skull. Develops periostalno about a mekkelev of a cartilage of the first visceral arch. The ossification center is put on the 2nd month of pre-natal development; the right and left parts of a bone connect on the 2nd year of life.

82. Maxilla (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. maxilla superior, upper jaw; pair pneumatic bone of a facial skull. Develops as webby bones. Ossification centers (from 2 to 6) are put on the 2nd month of pre-natal development.

83. Maxilla inferior, see Mandibula.

84. Maxilla superior, see Maxilla.

85. Mentalia ossa, mental bones; represent the remains of front ossification centers of a mekkelev of a cartilage; usually grow together with a mandible, taking part in formation of a mental ledge.

86. Metacarpale os (primum, secundum, tertium, quartum, quintum) (JNA), see Metacarpi (metacarpalia) (I—V) ossa.

87. Metacarpalia (I—V) ossa (BNA), see Metacarpi (metacarpalia) (I — Y) ossa.

88. Metacarpi (metacarpalia) (I — Y) ossa (PNA), s. metacarpalia (I—V) of ossa (BNA), metacarpale os (primum, secundum, tertium, quartum, quintum) (JNA), the I—V metacarpal bones, short tubular, monoepi-fizarny bones forming toI scurry about a basis of a shank. Primary ossification centers are put in bodies of bones on the 3rd month of pre-natal development, in a distal epiphysis of the II—V bones — on the 2nd year of life, in a proximal epiphysis of the I bone — on the 3rd year.

89. Metatarsalia (I—V) ossa (BNA), see Metatarsi (metatarsalia) (I—V) ossa.

90. Metatarseum os (primum, secundum, tertium, quartum, quintum (JNA), see Metatarsi (metatarsalia) (I—V) ossa.

91. Metatarsi (metatarsalia) (I—V) ossa (PNA), s. metatarsalia (I—V) ossa (BNA), metatarseum os (primum, secundum, tertium, quartum, quintum) (JNA), I—V plusnevy bones; the short tubular mono-epiphyseal bones forming a bone basis of a metatarsus of foot. Primary ossification centers are put in bodies of bones on 3 — the 4th month of pre-natal development, in a proximal epiphysis of the I plusnevy bone — on 3 — the 4th year of life, in a distal epiphysis of other bones (II—V) in the same terms. An epiphysis grows together with a diaphysis at men on 17 — the 21st year, at women — in 14 — 19 years.

92. Multangulum majus os (JNA, BNA) see Trapezium os.

93. Multangulum minus os (JNA, BNA), see Trapezoideum os.

94. Nasale os (PNA, JNA, BNA), nasal bone; the pair bone of a facial skull, makes a basis of an outside nose. The ossification center is put on the 2nd month of pre-natal development.

95. Naviculare manus os (JNA, BNA), see Scaphoideum os.

96. Naviculare os (PNA), s. naviculare pedis os (JNA, BNA), navicular; short bone of a distal number of a tarsus. The ossification center is put on 4 — the 5th year of life.

97. Naviculare pedis os (JNA, BNA), see Naviculare os.

98. Occipitale os (PNA, JNA, BNA), occipital bone; unpaired bone of a neurocranium. Develops from five ossification centers appearing at the end of the 2nd month of pre-natal development, side parts merge with scales at the age of 3 years, with the main part — in 4 — 5 years.

99. Odontoideum os, odontoid bone; represents the odontoid shoot (tooth) which did not grow to a body of the II cervical vertebra. It is jointed with a body of the II cervical vertebra by means of a special joint; anomaly of development.

100. Omoplata, see Scapula.

101. Orbicuiare Sylvii, see Ossiculum lenticulare.

102. Ossicula auditus (PNA, BNA), s. ossicula tympani (JNA), acoustical stones; three pair stones located in a drum cavity (malleus, incus, stapes).

103. Ossicula Bertini, bertenova of a stone. Old name of sinks of a wedge-shaped bone (conchae sphenoidales).

104. Ossicula tympani, see Ossicula auditus.

105. Ossiculum Gruberi, s. prokepha-loid, Gruber's stone; the additional bone of a wrist, is located on palmar side of a wrist between III and IV metacarpal bones, and also capitate and ankyroid bones.

106. Ossiculum lenticulare, s. orbicuiare Sylvii, lenticular stone of Silvius; epiphysis of a long shoot of an anvil.

107. Palatinum os (PNA, JNA, BNA), palatal bone; the pair bone of a facial skull, participates in formation of a hard palate, a nasal cavity, alate pole. Ossification happens on 4 — the 5th month of pre-natal development.

108. Parietale bipartitum os, double parietal bone; it is formed in case of division by a seam of a parietal bone on top and bottom half. At the person occurs seldom, more often at anthropoids and especially at the lowest monkeys.

109. Parietale os (PNA, JNA, BNA), parietal bone; pair flat cover bone of a neurocranium. Two ossification centers are put on the 2nd month of pre-natal development in the field of a parietal hillock and soon connect! among themselves.

110. Patella (PNA, JNA, BNA), patella, patellar cup; the sesamoid put in a sinew by the four-head of a muscle of a hip. Participates in formation of a knee joint. The ossification center at girls appears on 4 — the 5th year of life, at boys — on 5 — the 6th year, development of a bone comes to an end by the pubertal period.

111. Perone, see Fibula.

112. Peroneum os, see Fibularia accessoria ossa.

113. Phalanx distalis (PNA, JNA), s. phalanx tertia (BNA), phalanx unguicula-ris (manus), distal third phalanx of fingers of a brush, short tubular mono-epiphyseal bone. Ossification centers are put in a diaphysis on 7 — the 8th week of pre-natal development, in an epiphysis — on 2 — the 3rd year of life; ossification comes to an end at the age of 18 — 20 years.

114. Phalanx distalis (PNA, JNA), s. phalanx tertia (BNA), phalanx unguicula-ris (pedis), distal third phalanx of fingers of foot, short tubular mono-epiphyseal bone. Ossification centers in a diaphysis are put on 8 — the 10th week of pre-natal development, and in an epiphysis — on the 4th year of life. Ossification for - * kanchivatsya at men in 13 — 23 years, at women — in 13 — 17 years.

115. Phalanx media (PNA, JNA), s. phalanx secunda (BNA) (manus), average (second) phalanx of fingers of a brush; short tubular monoepiphyseal bone. Ossification centers in a diaphysis are put on And — the 12th week of pre-natal development, in an epiphysis — on 2 — the 3rd year of life; ossification comes to an end at the age of 18 — 20 years.

116. Phalanx media (PNA, JNA), s. phalanx secunda (BNA) (pedis), average (second) phalanx of fingers of foot; short tubular monoepiphyseal bone. Ossification centers are put in a diaphysis on 4 — the 10th month of pre-natal development, in an epiphysis — on the 3rd year of life; ossification comes to an end at boys in 15 — 19 years, at girls — in 13 — 16 years.

117. Phalanx prima, see Phalanx proxi-malis.

118. Phalanx proximalis (PNA, JNA), s. phalanx prima (BNA) (manus), proximal (first) phalanx of the II—V fingers of a brush; short tubular monoepiphyseal bone. Ossification centers in a diaphysis are put on the 9th week of pre-natal development, in an epiphysis — on 1 — the 3rd year of life; ossification comes to an end at the age of 18 — 20 years.

119. Phalanx proximalis (PNA, JNA), s. phalanx prima (BNA) (pedis), proximal (first) phalanx of the II—V fingers of foot; short tubular monoepiphyseal bone. Ossification centers in a diaphysis are put on the 3rd month of pre-natal development, in an epiphysis — on the 3rd year of life; ossification comes to an end at boys at the age of 15 — 17 years, at girls — in 14 — 15 years.

120. Phalanx secunda (BNA), see Phalanx media.

121. Phalanx tertia (BNA), see Phalanx distalis.

122. Phalanx unguicularis, cm. Phalanx distalis.

123. Pisiforme os (PNA, JNA, BNA), pea-shaped bone; the sesamoid put in a sinew of an elbow sgibatel of a wrist is located in a proximal number of a wrist. The ossification center is put at boys at the age of 12 — 13 years, at girls — in 9 — 10 years.

124. Praemaxilla, see Incisivum os.

125. Praetemporale os, pretemporal bone; the back department of a big wing of a wedge-shaped bone separated by a seam from its other parts; anomaly of development.

126. Prokephaloid, see Ossiculum Gru-beri.

127. Pubis os (PNA, JNA, BNA), pubic, or pubic, bone; the pair bone which is a part of a haunch bone. Ossification centers are put on 4 — the 5th month of pre-natal development; ossification comes to an end at the age of 22 — 25 years.

128. Radius (PNA, JNA, BNA), beam bone; pair long tubular bone of a forearm. Ossification centers in a diaphysis are put on the 7th week of pre-natal development; in a distal epiphysis at girls — on 8 — the 15th month, at boys — on 12 — the 16th month of life; in a head the ossification center appears on 4 — the 7th year of life; the proximal epiphysis connects to a diaphysis at the age of 17 — 18 years, distal — in 20 — 22 years.

129. Sacrum os (PNA, JNA, BNA), sacrum, aitcbone; represents accrete sacral vertebrae. Has multiple ossification centers, to-rye are put in bodies of vertebrae on the 4th month, and in arches on 5 — the 6th month of pre-natal development; merge of ossification centers in separate vertebrae happens between 2nd and 6th lives. Accretion of sacral vertebrae among themselves goes from below up, begins from 16 years and comes to an end by 25 years.

130. Scaphoideum os (PNA), s. naviculare manus os (JNA, BNA), navicular; pair short bone of a proximal number of bones of a wrist. Ossification centers appear at boys at the age of about 5 years, girls — between 4th and 5th have lives.

131. Scapula (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. omoplata, shovel; flat pair bone of a belt of an upper extremity. The ossification center in a body is put on the 2nd month of pre-natal development, in a coracoid — on the first year of life, additional ossification centers are formed at the age of 16 — 19 years in an acromial, lateral and bottom corner, and also medial edge of a shovel; ossification comes to an end at the age of 18 — 20 years.

132. Sesamoidea ossa (PNA, JNA, BNA), sesamoids; the small bone or cartilaginous formations of mostly rounded shape put in sinews of nek-ry muscles at the place of their attachment to a bone or in a wall of the capsule of a joint; meet preferential on a brush and foot.

133. Sphenoidale os (PNA, BNA), s. sphenoides os (JNA), wedge-shaped bone; unpaired pneumatic bone of a neurocranium. There pass three stages of development (webby, cartilaginous and bone), except for medial plates of alate shoots and wedge-shaped sinks, to-rye pass a cartilaginous stage. Has up to 14 ossification centers, the first of to-rykh appear on the 2nd month of pre-natal development; ossification comes to an end by 14 — 15 years.

134. Sphenoides os, see Sphenoidale os.

135. Sphenooccipitale os, see Basilare os.

136. Stapes (PNA, JNA, BNA), stirrup; the pair acoustical stone located in a drum cavity. Is a derivative of the second visceral arch.

137. Sternum (PNA, JNA, BNA), breast; flat unpaired bone of a thorax. Ossification centers in the handle appear on the 6th month, in an upper somite — on the 7th, in two average segments — on the 9th month of pre-natal development, in lower — on the first year of life; in a xiphoidal shoot of an ossification center appear in the pubertal period. Aged apprx. 18 years the synostosis of separate links of a midsternum begins; between the handle and a body of an union does not occur - Ossification of a breast comes to an end at the age of 30 — 35 years, the xiphoidal shoot quite often remains cartilaginous.

138. Stylohyoideum os, shilopodjyazych-ny bone; the stiffened shilopodjyazych-ny sheaf.

139. Styloid, see Styloideum os.

140. Styloideum os, s. styloid, awl-shaped bone; the additional bone of a wrist at the basis of the III metacarpal bone, reaches the size of 1 cm. Meets in 3 — 4% of cases. More often the awl-shaped bone grows together with the III metacarpal bone, forming its awl-shaped shoot.

141. Subtibiale os, podbolyyebertsovy bone; it is formed at isolation from a medial anklebone of one or several ossification centers who are put at its top. Forms by 7 — 8 years; at the age of 10 — 11 years usually merges with a tibial bone.

142. Supranavicularia ossa, nadladye-shaped bones; additional bones of foot, are located at posterosuperior edge of a navicular in the form of roundish or oval educations.

143. Suprasternalia ossa, s. episterna-lia ossa, nadgrudinny bones; are formed in rare instances at the upper edge of the handle of a breast.

144. Supratali ossa, nadtaranny bones; additional bones of foot. Are located at anterosuperior edge of an astragalus.

145. Sustentaculi proprium os, see Sustentaculum os.

146. Sustentaculum os, s. sustentaculi proprium os, bone of a support of an astragalus; the support of an astragalus which separated from a calcaneus.

147. Suturarum ossa, s. Wormiana ossa, bones of seams; represent the stood apart excessively developed teeth of seams of a skull, are found preferential in sagittal and lambdoid seams.

148. Talus (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. astragalus, collision, or nadpyatochny, bone; short bone of a tarsus of foot. The ossification center is put on 7 — the 8th month of pre-natal development, ossification comes to an end by 18 years.

149. Talus accessorius, additional astragalus; the additional bone of foot, is located at zadnemedialny edge of an astragalus.

150. Temporale os (PNA, JNA, BNA), temporal bone; pair pneumatic bone of a neurocranium. Stony part develops from a cartilaginous ear capsule, in a cut several ossification centers are put. Ossification of the capsule of a labyrinth almost completely comes to an end by 6th month of pre-natal development. The awl-shaped shoot develops from a dorsal cartilage of the second visceral arch, has two ossification centers, one of to-rykh appears at once after the birth, the second at the age of about 4 years. In scales and a drum part of an ossification center are put in a webby basis on 2 — the 3rd month of pre-natal development. Parts of a temporal bone grow together among themselves by 6 years.

151. Tibia (PNA, JNA, BNA), tibial bone; long tubular bone of a shin. Ossification centers in a diaphysis are put on the 2nd month of pre-natal development, in a proximal epiphysis — by the time of the birth, in distal — on the 2nd year of life, in tuberosity — in 13 years; the proximal epiphysis connects to a diaphysis at the age of 20 — 24 years, and distal — aged * 16 — 19 years.

152. Tibiale externum os, outside tibial bone; an additional bone of foot of a pyramidal or oval form 1 — 17 g see. Is located at medial edge of a navicular. Represents the isolated ossification center of tuberosity of a navicular.

153. Transversum cranii os, see Interpa-rietale os.

154. Trapezium os (PNA), s. multangulum majus os (JNA, BNA), a bone — a trapeze, a big polygonal bone; short bone of a distal number of a wrist. The ossification center is put at girls on 4 — the 5th year, at boys at the age of 5 — 6 years.

155. Trapezium secundarium os, the second (additional) trapezoid bone of a wrist located between a bone — a trapeze and a trapezoid bone at the basis of the II metacarpal bone.

156. Trapezoideum os (PNA), s. multangulum minus os (JNA, BNA), trapezoid, or small polygonal bone; short bone of a distal number of bones of a wrist. Ossification centers are put at girls on 4 — the 5th year, at boys — at the age of 5 — 6 years.

157. Triangulare os, s. intermedium antebrachii os, triangular, or intermediate, the bone of a forearm located between the distal end of an ulna and bones of a wrist usually grows together with an awl-shaped shoot of an ulna.

158. Trigonum tali os, triangle of an astragalus; the lateral hillock of a back shoot of an astragalus of triangular shape, size about a pea, sometimes is more, separated in the form of an independent bone. Usually meets as bilateral education. Ossifies at the age of 8 — 10 years.

159. Triquetrum os (PNA, JNA, BNA), trihedral bone; short bone of a proximal number of a wrist. Ossification centers are put at girls at the age of 2 — 3 years, at - boys — approximately in 3 years.

160. Trochleae os, bone of the block; additional bone of foot. The stood apart block of an astragalus.

161. Turbinatum os, see Concha nasa-lis inferior.

162. Tympanicum os, drum bone; drum part of a temporal bone (pars tvm panica).

163. Ulna (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. cubitus, ulna; pair long tubular bone of a forearm. Ossification centers are put in a diaphysis on the 7th week of pre-natal development, in an epiphysis at girls — on 6 — the 7th year, at boys — on 7 — the 8th year of life. An epiphysis connects to a diaphysis at women in 20 — 21 year, at men — in 21 — 24 years.

164. Vertebra prominens (PNA, JNA, BNA) acting a vertebra; VII cervical vertebra.

165. Vertebrae (PNA, JNA, BNA), vertebrae; short unpaired bones in number of 32 — 33, forming a rachis. Distinguish the following vertebrae: cervical (vertebrae cervicales) — seven, chest (vertebrae thoracicae) — twelve, lumbar (vertebrae lumbales) — five, sacral (vertebrae sacrales) — five, form a sacrum (os sacrum), coccygeal (vertebrae coccygeae) — three — five, forming a tailbone (os coccygis). Ossification centers in bodies of vertebrae appear on 3 — the 5th month, and in arches on 2 — the 5th month of pre-natal development, after the birth additional ossification centers in number from 2 to 18 are formed; connection of arches and bodies of vertebrae happens on 3 — the 6th year of life; ossification of vertebrae comes to an end at the age of 22 — 24 years.

166. Vertebrae caudales, see Coccygis os.

167. Vesalianum os, Vezaliya's bone; the additional bone of foot or brush formed as a result of department of tuberosity of the V plusnevy bone. Carry to number of stones of Vezaliya also a fabella (fabella).

168. Vomer (PNA, JNA, BNA), share; flat unpaired bone of a facial skull, uchastvuyushchI in formation of a partition of a nose. Develops from two ossification centers who are put on 2 — the 3rd month of pre-natal development on lateral surfaces of a cartilaginous partition of a nose and the forming two longitudinal bone plates, to-rye soon merge.

169. Wormiana ossa, see Suturarum ossa.

170. Zygomaticum os (PNA, JNA, BNA), s. jugale os, malare os, malar; the pair bone of a facial skull participating in formation of a zygoma and temporal pole. The ossification center is put at the end of the 2nd month of pre-natal development, two-three ossification centers are sometimes put. By seams it can be divided into two or three parts (os zygomaticum bipartitum, os zygomaticum tripartitum).


See also articles devoted to separate parts of a skeleton, e.g. Hip , Shin , Brush , Tailbone , Patella etc.



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E. A. Vorobyova; I. G. Lagunova (rents.).

Яндекс.Метрика