SINGAPORE, the Republic of Singapore — the state in Southeast Asia, includes the lake Singapore with adjacent small islands. The area is 581,5 sq.km. Population of 2,4 million (1980, assessment). The capital — Singapore (1,6 million inhabitants, 1980). Ofits. languages — English, Chinese, Malayan, Tamil.
The village — the republic (since 1965) as a part of the Commonwealth headed by Great Britain. Since 1963 the constitution works. The head of state — the president, legislature is carried out by unicameral parliament. Executive power belongs to the government headed by the prime minister.
The island Singapore is connected to the Malakksky peninsula an artificial dam 1200 m long Malakksky and Singapore passages separate it from the islands of Indonesia. Surface of the island hilly; the prevailing height of 100 — 150 m. The climate is tropical monsoonal. In places the territory is boggy and covered with rainforests, along the coast mangrove thickets last.
Trade and the industry are concentrated in Singapore — the large, well equipped port of the international value. There are ship-building and ship-repair shipyards, the enterprises of the electronic, electrotechnical, food industry, the large olovoplavilny plant, etc.; departments of the largest foreign banks function. An important role in economy is played by foreign trade, preferential reexport. Rubber-bearing plants, coconut palm trees, pineapples are grown up. The international tourism is developed.
St. 76% of the population Chinese, 15% — Malayans, apprx. 7% — natives of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka make, the others — Europeans, Arabs, etc. Average population density is very high — apprx. 4,1 thousand people on 1 sq.km.
Vital rates in 1980 (on 1000 inhabitants) on the materials published in editions of WHO: birth rate 17,3, mortality 5,2, natural increase 12,1. Child mortality 11,7 on 1000 live-born.
Malignant new growths, cardiovascular diseases, pneumonia, accidents, including the road accidents were the main reasons for death in 1973 — 1977; cancer cases of lungs and a myocardial infarction for the same period increased respectively for 37 and 41%, the number of addresses concerning mental disorders significantly increased. Intestinal infections, including a typhoid, and also tuberculosis, a viral hepatitis, fever of a dengue, mosquito viral encephalitis, malaria were registered. Sporadic delivery is resulted by the outbreaks of cholera; the largest (114 cases) was in 1972. During the period from 1973 to 1977 increase in number of cases of veins is noted. diseases (with 6211 to 12294).
Heads health service mines - in health care. In 1977 in the country there were 14 public medical institutions intended for rendering the stationary help on 8574 beds (37,1 beds on 10 thousand population), including 6 general BCs (4012 beds), 2 infectious (1003 beds) and 2 psychiatric (2550 beds), a maternity home (727 beds), the nursery-tsa (120 beds),-tsa for hron. patients (117 beds), establishment for stay of mentally retarded persons (45 beds). Also 8 private BCs on 1007 beds functioned. Total number of beds in the country made 9581 (42,0 beds on 10 thousand population).
Extra hospital help is given by out-patient departments of BC, 26 clinics, 40 centers of mother and child and the centers of planning of a family, 4 policlinics, and also private medical practitioners. Responsibility for a dignity. environmental control, holding quarantine and anti-epidemic actions, fight against carriers of causative agents of diseases, control of quality of food stuffs are brought by Min-in on environmental issues. (The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of S. not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
In 1977 in the country there were 1847 doctors (8,0 doctors on 10 thousand population), 5167 nurses and midwifes, 1718 assistants to the nurse and assistants to the midwife.
Training of doctors is carried out in Singapore un-those (the term of training at the medical fact of 5 years, on dental — 4 years). At un-those the school of post-degree preparation on the following specialties functions: therapy, surgery, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics, anesthesiology, organization of health care. The paramedical staff prepares at nursing school, in-those stomatology, school of radiation medicine, on the basis of a number of BC.
There are 16 private pharmaceutical enterprises, products to-rykh generally go for export, and 1 state, intended for ensuring the public medical institutions.
Bibliography: Countries and people, Foreign Asia, Southeast Asia, page 175, M., 1979; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 535, Geneva, WHO, 1981; World health statistics annual 1979, Infection diseases, p. 123, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual 1980, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 12, Geneva, 1980; World health statistics annual 1980, Vital statistics and causes of death, p. 4, Geneva, 1980.
V. V. Fedorov.