HOLYN — 2-gidroksietiltrimetit ammonium, amino alcohol trimetilami-noetanol, biologically active agent. Sincaline is a component of letsitin (see) and sphingomyelins (see), the biosynthetic predecessor of a mediator of a nervous system — acetylcholine (see). Decomposition product of sincaline — a betaine (see) is a source of methyl group at formation of methionine see) by methylation of a gomotsi-stein. In medicine sincaline is used as the medicine possessing lipotropic action (see. Lipotropic substances). Disbolism caused by a lack of sincaline allowed researchers to consider a nek-eye sincaline as vitamin of group B (B4 vitamin) or vitaminopodobny substance.
Colourless crystals of sincaline are exclusively hygroscopic and decay without melting with formation of trimethylamine. We will dissolve sincaline in water, methyl and ethyl alcohols, we will badly dissolve in acetone and chloroform, it is insoluble on air. It has the expressed main properties (see Acids and the bases), absorbs carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide gas) from air, forces out ammonia from its salts. Water solutions of sincaline are steady in the cold and in acid medium, but in the presence of alkalis decay, forming neurine (see). Neurine is formed also at transformation of sincaline under the influence of putrefactive bacteria.
Sincaline forms slightly soluble salts with phosphatotungstic, chloroplatinic and tetrafe-nilborny to-tami, potassium iodide, chloride cadmium and solyo Reyneke NH4[(NH3)2Cr(NCS)4]. These reactions are used during the definition of sincaline by methods of sedimentation (see Sedimentation methods) and colorimetric (see Colorimetry). Qualitative and quantitative test of sincaline can be made by method of a chromatography (see) on paper, in a thin coat, ion-exchange chromatography, etc. Sincaline is defined also mikrobiol. by method, using as a test object of Neurospora crassa since growth of Neurospora is proportional to concentration of sincaline in a medium. Fiziol. the method of identification of sincaline consists in its transfer in acetylcholine and impact of the last on an unstriated muscle. At measurement of content of sincaline in biol. material it is extracted methanol, besieged Reyneke's salt in alkaline condition and kolorimetrirut.
At a human body and animals sincaline is present both at a stand-at-ease, and in the form of ethers. Most of all free sincaline contains in bile (see) — to 550 mg! 100 ml. In a blood plasma of adults concentration of free sincaline averages 0,44 mg! 100 ml.
Sincaline comes to a human body with food and, besides, is synthesized from ethanolamine and methionine, to-ry is a donor of methyl groups (see Transmethylation):
Sincaline is necessary for synthesis of the letsitin and sphingomyelins which are obligatory components of the lipoproteids (see) synthesized in a liver. Decrease in intensity of synthesis of letsitin and sphingomyelins is led, in turn, to reduction of use triglitseri-
by Oov (see) and cholesterol (see) on formation of lipoproteids that leads to accumulation of triglycerides and, to a lesser extent, cholesterol in a liver and to development of fatty infiltration of this body. At the same time concentration of lipids in blood considerably decreases. The slowed-down oxidation observed at a lack of sincaline in it fatty acids is other possible reason of development of fatty infiltration of a liver (see). Sincaline is among the major lipotropic substances preventing development of fatty infiltration of a liver. In an experiment it is noted that at insufficiency of sincaline at animals kidneys are surprised, the lactation is broken, in nek-ry cases paralyzes develop. The last is connected, apparently, with participation of acetylcholine in transfer of nervous impulses. Hron. insufficiency of sincaline leads to anemia (see) and hypoproteinemias.
Daily need of the person for sincaline is equal to 0,5 — 4 g (depending on contents in food of methionine). In foodstuff of sincaline contains (in milligrams on 100 g of weight of a product): meat — 85, fish — 85,
a bird — 200, soya beans — 250, peas — 260, a liver — 600, egg yolk — 1700.
Sincaline as drug. In medicine as medicine chloride is used sincaline (
Cho-1 i ni chloridum; synonym: Choline chloride, Bilineurine, etc.), to-ry carry to vitaminopodobny drugs. Sincaline chloride represents the white crystal hydroscopic powder which is easily dissolved in water. He possesses lipotropic action, warns or reduces fatty infiltration of a liver, possesses weak atsetilkholino-like action, in high doses can cause excitement of m-holinoreaktivnykh of systems, strengthen a peristaltics of intestines. Sincaline chloride is easily soaked up from went to blood. - kish. path; out of an organism it is brought with urine, bile and then.
Sincaline chloride is applied at hepatitises, cirrhosis, a hypothyroidism, a cystinuria, atherosclerosis, hron. alcoholism. Appoint inside on 1 chayn. l. (5 ml of 20% of solution)
3 — 5 times a day (3 — 5 g a day) or intravenously (only kapelno) in the form of 1% of the solution prepared on isotonic solution of sodium chloride or 5% solution of glucose; enter with a speed no more than 30 drops a minute 200 — 300 ml that corresponds to 2 — 3 g of sincaline of chloride. Duration of a course of treatment is from 7 — 10 days to 3 — 4 weeks.
At administration of drug the dispeptic phenomena inside are sometimes observed, at bystry intravenous administration there can be nausea, vomiting, feeling of heat, bradycardia, decrease in the ABP up to a collapse therefore intravenous administration of sincaline of chloride is made in the conditions of a hospital.
Form of release: powder and ampoules on 10 ml of 20% of solution; for drop injections prepare 1% solution just before the use.
Bibliography: Vitamins, under the editorship of M. I. Smirnov, M., 1974; At and y t And., etc. Fundamentals of biochemistry, the lane with English, t. 1 — 3, M., 1981; Kuksis A. MookerjeaS. Choline, Nutr. Rev., v. 36, p. 201, 1978.
A. H. Klimov, D. V. Ioffe; V. M. Abakumov (pharm.