SIMPSON James (Simpson James Young; 1811 — 1870) — the Scottish obstetrician and the surgeon, one of founders of anesthesiology.
In 1832 ended medical f-t Edinburgh un-that. Doctor of medicine (1837). Worked as the assistant at department of pathology; was engaged in medical practice as the surgeon and the obstetrician. Since 1839 professor of department of obstetrics Edinburgh un-that.
J. Simpson one of the first beginnings to apply the general anesthesia (sulphurous ether) at various surgical, including gynecologic, operations; the first used etherization in obstetric practice (1846) and suggested to apply chloroform as anesthetic in obstetrics and surgery (1847). Developed an original method (1850) of preventive version at a narrow basin, a long time used instead of perforation of a head and imposing of high nippers (this method ceased to apply only after extension of indications to Cesarean section). Invented a number of medical tools, including a cranioclast; improved obstetric nippers. From the damaged vessels applied a method (1859) of an acupressure to a stop of bleeding, at Krom the needle brought under the bleeding vessel squeezes and presses it to surrounding fabrics.
For scientific merits it is conferred an award of the French academy of Sciences (1856); was the first Scottish doctor who received in Great Britain a title of the baronet (1866).
Works: Obstetric memoirs and contributions, v. 1 — 2, Philadelphia, 1855 — 1856; The work of sir James Y. Simpson, v. 1 — 3, Edinburgh, 1871 — 1872.
Bibliography: Alexandrov L. P. Memories of W. Morton'a and J. Simpson’a, M., 1896; Gordon H. L. Sir James Young Simpson and chloroform, L., 1897.
M. B. Mirsky.