From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SIGMOIDITIS (sigmoiditis; lat. intestinum sigmoideum a sigmoid gut + - itis) — an inflammation of a sigmoid gut, a kind of segmented colitis.

It is for the first time described in 1893. A. Mayor. The isolated S. meets seldom. It is often combined with proctitis (see) and in these cases carries the name of a proctosigmoiditis.

Etiology, pathogeny and patol. anatomy same, as at [[ | prick COLITIS ]] (see).

The page can be acute and chronic. Acute S. is characterized by emergence of pains in the left ileal area, to-rye depending on expressiveness patol. process can be moderate or skhvatkoobrazny, change of character of excrements and frequencies of a chair; acute S. most often is a symptom dysentery (see).

At chronic S. patients complain of pains in the left half of a stomach, is preferential in a lower part, to-rye amplify before defecation or after it, at long walking, jolty driving, physical tension; alternation of ponos and locks, and also false ponosa is noted (see. Locks , Ponosa ). Patients are disturbed by abdominal distention, loud rumbling in intestines, an eructation, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. In hard cases weakness, falling of the weight (weight) of a body, temperature increase is noted. At a palpation the thickening, consolidation, morbidity of a sigmoid gut is defined. In excrements find slime, sometimes blood, pus.

Inflammatory process at hron. The page quite often extends to a visceral peritoneum with development of a perisigmoiditis. As a result of it unions of a gut with surrounding bodies are formed. The perisigmoiditis can arise also owing to an injury, band operations. Localization and the nature of pains at a perisigmoiditis do not differ from those at Page. A characteristic sign of a perisigmoiditis is restriction or lack of mobility of a sigmoid gut at a palpation of a stomach. At rentgenol. a research the sigmoid gut is fixed, its contour is flattened.

Diagnosis put on the basis a wedge, pictures, results of a bacteriological, microscopic and biochemical examination a calla, radiological and endoscopic inspection. At microscopic examination a calla leukocytes, erythrocytes, slime, cells of an intestinal epithelium are found. At a biochemical research the increased allocation with excrements of enzymes and protein is noted (see. Kal ). An endoscopic picture (see. Kolonoskopiya ), and also results gistol. researches of biopsy material depend on the reason which called S. Rentgenologicheski changes of a mucous membrane of a gut in the form of deformation, increases in caliber, reduction of quantity of folds come to light up to their disappearance, rigidity of a wall of a gut, irregularity of a baric column, defects of filling, etc. (see. Irrigoskopiya ).

Differential diagnosis carry out with tumors of a large intestine (at cancer there is an early stenozirovaniye of its gleam more often), with diseases of uric ways, female generative organs, appendicitis at an atypical arrangement of a worm-shaped shoot.

Recommend rest and a sparing diet with restriction of a cellulose. Apply the antibacterial, anti-spastic, analgetic, sedative, knitting, enveloping agents; widely use topical treatment by means of candles and microclysters with starch, a camomile, fats, vitamin A, methyluracil, corticosteroids, etc.

At timely treatment and observance of the recommended mode the forecast, as a rule, favorable.

Prevention hron. The page consists in the prevention of acute intestinal diseases, elimination in an organism of the centers of an infection, a balanced diet and observance of the mode of meal.

See also Colitis .

Bibliography: Berlin L. B. Chronic colitis, M., 1951, bibliogr.; JI e-in and t and M.'s N of X., Fedorov V. D. and Kapuller JI. JI. Nonspecific colitis, M., 1980, bibliogr.; V. P is model. Stomach diseases, guts and peritoneum, Kiev, 1924; Claus H. G. Strahlenreaktionen an Rektum und Sigma im Rontgenbild, Fortschr. Rontgenstr., Bd 102, S. 405, 1965; Frommhold W. Strahlenschaden am Darm, in book: Klin. Gastroenterol., hrsg. v. L. Demling, Bd 1, S. 486, Stuttgart, 1973; Mayor A. Quelques mots sur une of vari£te d’enterite iliaque, Rev. med. Suisse rom., t. 13, p. 421, 1893.

A. V. Frolkis.