SIERRA LEONE, the Republic of Sierra Leone — the state in the Western Africa, is a part of the Commonwealth headed by Great Britain.
In the North and the northeast borders on Guinea, in the southeast — with Liberia, in the West it is washed by waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Territory of 72,3 thousand km 2 . Population of 3,62 million people (1982). The capital — Freetown (320 thousand zhit., 1982). In the administrative relation is divided into 3 provinces (East, Northern and Southern) and the Western area (Freetown with suburbs). Ofits. language — English.
Page - the H.p. of 1896 was protectorate of Great Britain. On April 27, 1961 independence is declared. In April, 1971 S.-L. became the republic. The constitution adopted in June, 1978 works. The head of state — the president elected for 7 years. The legislature belongs to the House of Representatives (unicameral parliament). Executive power — to the president and the government.
S.-L. it is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, the most part of the country Leono - Li - beriyskaya occupies a height. Wet evergreen and listopadno-evergreen equatorial forests remained only for 5% of the territory. In the north of the country — the tall-grass savanna, in the South and the southeast — a thicket of secondary bushes. Climate equatorial. The rainy season proceeds from May to September. Rainfall in mountains more than 4000 mm a year.
S.-L. — developing country. The basis of the economy — the mining industry and agriculture. Rice, cassavas, corn, millet are grown up. From export cultures coffee, cocoa beans, ginger, a citrus, a peanut are cultivated. Because of prevalence of a fly of a tsetse the livestock production is developed poorly, preferential in the north.
The population is divided into 2 basic ethnic groups: people of the Atlantic tongue family and people of a family of languages of Mende. The largest people — Mende also muddle. Population density — 50 people on 1 sq.km (1982).
The natural movement of the population in 1979 (for 1000 zhit.): birth rate 46, general mortality 19, natural increase 27. Average duration of the forthcoming life of men 44,3 years, women 47,5 years (1975).
In structure of incidence infectious and parasitic diseases prevail, to-rye are the main reason for death. Malaria, tuberculosis, a schistosomatosis, a leprosy, an onchocercosis and other helminthoses, children's infections are most widespread. In 1979 in the country 79 922 fresh cases of malaria, 71 bacillar dysentery, the 287th meningococcal infection, 1674 schistosomatosis, 1279 of a filariosis, 1408 chicken poxes, the 4102nd measles, the 5612th diarrhea, the 316th epidemic parotitis, 692 tetanus are registered. 1425 whooping cough, 132 leprosies and 199th pulmonary tuberculosis.
In 1980 in the country there were 46 BCs on 3474 beds (10,2 beds on 10 000 people), including 20 state BCs on 2284 beds. Vnebolnich-ny help would be given in consultations at and in 66 centers of health care.
The main objective of health care in provinces is providing on average 1 post of health care on 4000 — 6000 people, 1 district center of health care on everyone 20 000 — 30 000 zhit. districts, 1 district-tsy on 150 beds for each center of the district and 1 provincial-tsy on 250 beds for each center of the province. It is also planned to expand security services of motherhood and the childhood with tev that on everyone 4000 — 5000 zhit. 1 assistant to this service had.
Names of healthcare institutions C.-K. and the content of their work not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
In 1980 in the country 195 doctors (0,55 for 10 thousand population), 18 dentists, 3 physiotherapists, 8 druggists, 751 nurse and the midwife, 840 assistants to nurses and midwifes worked. Training of doctors is carried out abroad, the paramedical staff is trained at 7 schools.
Bibliography: Official documents of WHO No. 236, page 419, Geneva, 1977; Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 329, M., 1981; Sixth report on the world health situation 1973 — 1977, p. 264, Geneva, 1980; World health statistics annual 1977, v. 2, p. 12, Geneva, 1977; World health statistics annual 1978, v. 3, p. 13, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual 1983, Geneva, 1983; World health statistics annual 1980, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 2, 33, Geneva, 1980; World health statistics annual 1980 — 1981, Infections diseases, cases, p. 10, Geneva, 1981.
T. V. Kuznetsova.