SHVARTTSMANA FENOMEN (
G. Schwartzman, amer. bacteriologist, 1896 — 1965; Greek phainomenon something being, the phenomenon) — bystry development in experimental animal hemorrhage and a necrosis in the place of an intradermal injection of a filtrate of bacterial culture after the same intravenous administration repeated (in a day) or other toxin. Highway f. is model of an alterativny inflammation, and also the model experience opening a pathogeny of nek-ry hemorrhagic reactions. There is an assumption that pathogenetic mechanisms of inflammatory processes in lungs, kidneys, joints are close to Sh. f. It is quite probable that this phenomenon takes place and at various hemorrhagic inflammations which are followed by a necrosis. Inflammations, similar Sh. f., are described at tuberculosis, plague, a typhoid.
For the first time this phenomenon was described by Shvarttsman in 1928 at rabbits under the name «phenomenon of local skin reactivity».
To rabbit vnutrikozhno enter 0,1 — 0,5 ml of a filtrate of 6-day bouillon culture of V. of coli communis or a filtrate of other cultures, napr, dysenteric bacteria, pneumococci, meningokokk (the so-called preparing injection); in 20 — 24 hours the same filtrate is entered intravenously at the rate of 1 — 2 ml on 1 kg of weight (the so-called allowing injection). Approximately in 6 hours in the place of intradermal introduction of a filtrate the rough hemorrhagic inflammation and a necrosis of fabric, the kapillyarotoksichesky process of not allergic nature which is followed by the expressed changes of coagulant system of blood (see) develop. The system of mononuclear phagocytes does not play an essential role in Sh.'s pathogeny f. The inflammation at Shvarttsman's phenomenon usually resolves within a week and does not leave any marks. Shvarttsman denied the anaphylactic nature of the phenomenon opened for them.
Highway f. it is possible to reproduce also at goats, horses; at Guinea pigs it is expressed more weakly. Vitebsk and Neter (E. Witebsky, E. Neter) in 1936 established that at young rabbits to reproduce Sh. f. it is more difficult, than at adults.
In 1932 Mr. Shvarttsman described a new method of reproduction of a phenomenon of local fabric reactivity, at Krom to a rabbit, sensibilized to any animal protein (to blood serum, ovalbumin, etc.), enter vnutrikozhno a nerazve-denny bacterial filtrate; 24 hours later make intravenous injektsdyu the same animal protein. In 4 — 5 hours on site of intradermal introduction of a filtrate the hemorrhagic necrosis is found.
On the mechanism of development of Sh. f. it is close to Sanarelli's phenomenon — Zdro-dovsky (see Sanarelli — Zdrodov-sky a phenomenon),-ry to A. Gratia and Linz (R. Linz) was regarded as generalized Sh. f. In both cases introduction of a filtrate of bouillon culture of these or those microbes causes damage of an endothelium of circulatory capillaries and activation of coagulant system of blood. At Sh. f. these processes arise on site intradermal introduction of a bacterial filtrate; at Sanarelli's phenomenon — Zdrodovsky damage of an endothelium of circulatory capillaries extends to all vascular network of an experimental animal. During the studying of a pathogeny of Sh. f. a number of differences of this inflammation from the inflammatory reaction arising at Artyus's phenomenon is found (see Artyus a phenomenon). So, Sh. f. is reproduced with classical anaphylactogen, to-ry causes Artyus's phenomenon — horse serum and other not bacteritic proteins. On the other hand, not all bacteria cause it. In particular, vulgar staphylococcus and a streptococcus belong to such bacteria. For pre-treatment of fabric at Sh.'s reproduction f. from 8 to 24 hours are required; in 48 hours fabric is desensibilized. Before reproduction of a phenomenon of Artyus it is necessary to carry out a sensitization of fabric within 1 month and more than several injections of antigen; after development of a phenomenon of Artyus fabric remains sensibilized to this protein within several months. Besides, III. t. it is possible to cause various nonspecific substances. E.g., for the preparing injection in Debonera, Tzortzakis and Falketti's experiences (G. Debonera, N. Tzort-zakis, E. Falchetti, 1932) successfully used paraffine oil, in Freynd's experiences (J. Freund, 1934) — caustic silver, tuberculine; applied an agar to the allowing injection.
The Gratsia and Linz (1933) carried an inflammation at Artyus's phenomenon and Shvarttsman's phenomenon to one group of so-called geteroallergiches-ky hemorrhagic inflammations. Highway f. they considered as the accelerated Artyus's phenomenon, at Krom as antigen the bacterial filtrate is used.
Highway f. is reproduced also at different ways of introduction of a bacterial filtrate. So, Alyoshin-sky (A. Alechinsky, 1935) suggested to enter to rabbits 0,5 ml of an active filtrate of colibacillus into an ear vein, on to-ruyu previously imposed a ligature. In 6 hours the ligature was removed and after recovery of blood circulation to the spinal canal made the allowing injection of 0,5 — 1,0 ml of the same filtrate. In 24 hours on site of the first injection the hemorrhagic inflammation was noted. During the replacement of a filtrate with sterile broth or isotonic solution of sodium chloride of a hemorrhagic inflammation it was not observed.
Bibliography: And to A. D. Materials
to the doctrine about a giperergichesky inflammation of Arthus'a, Works Kazansk. medical in-that, century 1, page 3, 1938; Sirotinin H. H. Evolution of resistance and reactivity of an organism, M., 1981; Alechinsky A. Constatations nouvelles concernant les phenomena de Sanarelli — Shwartzman,
G. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), t. 118, p. 1496, 1935; Debonera G., Tzortzakis N. et Falchetti E. Inflammation et phenomene de Shwartzman, ibid., t. 109, p. 24, 1932; Gratia A. et Linz R. Les phenomenes de Sanarelli et de Shwartzman ou 1’allergie hemorragique, Ann. Inst. Pasteur, t. 49, p. 131, 1932; Shwartzman G. Phenomenon of local tissue reactivity and its immunological, pathological and clinical significance, N. Y., 1937.
A. D. Ado.