SHUMLYANSKY Alexander Mikhaylovich (1748 — 1795) is a domestic doctor, the obstetrician, one of founders of microscopical anatomy in Russia.
In 1776 graduated from hospital school at the Admiralty hospital in St. Petersburg and was entitled the doctor. In 1777 — 1782 specialized on obstetrics in Strasbourg un-those. In 1782 protected dokt. the thesis on «About a Structure of Kidneys». In 1785 it was directed abroad where got acquainted with statement of training at the higher medical schools. In 1787 — 1793 taught pathology and therapy in the Moscow medicochirurgical school. Since 1793 professor of obstetrics of the Moscow obstetric school.
A. M. Shumlyansky applied an original technique of an injection of blood vessels of a kidney and renal tubules and for the first time presented a picture of their anatomic ratios. He proved that the renal little bodies described by M. Malpigi represent not glands, and the textures of arterial capillaries surrounded with «some ring-shaped border». It was the first observation of the capsule of a ball (the capsule Sh at ml I not to about go — B about at exchanges and), opening a cut quite often attributed afterwards V. Boumena. A. M. Shumlyansky showed that each vascular ball adjoins a separate renal tubule, and each tubule represents a uniform tube, in a cut there are direct and gyrose sites. He proved an inaccuracy of the statement of F. Ryuysh about existence in kidneys of so-called open arteries and by that finally confirmed the assumption that the circulatory system of kidneys is closed.
A. M. Shumlyansky paid much attention to questions of training of doctors in Russia, participated in development of the project of transformation of hospital schools to medicochirurgical schools (see).
Works: Opinion of one pstinnolyubets on the direction of science, nanpolezneyshy for people, SPb., 1787; About a structure of kidneys, Fi-ziologo-anatomicheskin the treatise, in book: S. L. Istoriya's sable of a microscope and microscopic examinations in Russia in the 18th century, page 519, M. — L., 1949.
Bibliography: A sable S. L. Alec
Sandr Mikhaylovich Shumlyansky, in book: People of Russian science, under the editorship of I. V. Kuznetsov, page 45, M., 1963; Suslov V. V. and N. I. K Ganders to the 200 anniversary of the doctrine of A. M. Shumlyansky about a kidney (1782 — 1982), Urol. and nefrol., No. 1, page 61, 1983.
V. S. Speransky.