Ш^ЛЬТЦА — DYOYLA REAKTION (W. N of Schultz, English physiologist, 1873 — 1947; H. N of Dale, the English physiologist and the pharmacologist, 1875 — 1968) — reduction of the isolated site of an ileal gut or the isolated uterus of a sensibilized Guinea pig at influence by offending allergen. Highway — D. of river is used for definition of a sensitization at reaginic type of allergic reactions (see the Allergy).
For the first time Sh. — D. of river was described by Shultts in 1910 and G. Dale in 1913 Mr.
Shultts, studying changes of reactivity of separate bodies (a bladder, a small bowel, an aorta, a uterus) sensibilized Guinea pigs in relation to a specific antigen after its repeated introduction, established that the acute anaphylaxis (see) is followed by a spasm of smooth muscles of various bodies, at the same time the spasm is a consequence of impact of antigen on sensibilized fabric. Smooth muscles of the isolated body of a sensibilized Guinea pig react to introduction of a specific antigen much stronger, than smooth muscles not - a sensibilized Guinea pig.
G. Deyl showed that the histamine participates in the mechanism of reduction of the isolated smooth muscle bodies at an acute anaphylaxis (see). In experiences on the isolated uterus of a sensibilized Guinea pig he established various nature of reaction to antigen depending on a way of a sensitization.
A. D. A to in 1939 for the first time showed that the nature of reduction of smooth muscle bodies depends on terms and ways of administration of antigen, on its look and a dose.
Usually reduction of unstriated muscles at an acute anaphylaxis reaches a maximum within several seconds. In experiences of in vitro the maximum reduction of a duodenum was observed at the end of the second minute. At the same time allocation of the maximum quantity of a histamine happens in the second minute. Various bodies in a condition of the greatest reduction stay different time: e.g., a small bowel of a Guinea pig 50 sec. and more, a uterus of a Guinea pig — several seconds.
There are several hypotheses explaining the mechanism of reduction of unstriated muscles at an acute anaphylaxis. So, supporters of a so-called histamine hypothesis believe that reduction occurs as a result of release of a histamine under the influence of antigen from mast cells and excitement of an unstriated muscle the released histamine. Other researchers consider that the histamine released under the influence of antigen causes secondary release in intramural nervous elements of acetylcholine, to-ry provides reduction of unstriated muscles. Except the specified mediators, also prostaglandins (see), leukotrienes take part in the mechanism of reduction (see Mediators of allergic reactions) and anafila-toksinony In a crust, time there are data on direct effect of antigen on sensibilized unstriated muscles without participation of mediators.
Smooth muscle bodies can also be sensibilized passively serums, antibody-containing. This way is used for definition in the studied blood sera of quantity of antibodies and their nek-ry properties. So, T. A. Avdeeva defined reagins in blood sera of patients with a pollinosis (see), investigating a passive sensitization of a small bowel of a monkey of Macacus rhesus. It showed that sensitivity of this way of detection of reagins in blood serum of patients with a pollinosis on several orders surpasses sensitivity of reaction of Prausnitts (see Prausnitts — Kyustnera reaction). After single reduction of smooth muscle body there comes its desensitization. This state, at Krom repeated addition of antigen (after washing of body) does not cause the next reduction. The technique of a passive sensitization of the isolated smooth muscle bodies allowed to obtain quantitative data on dependence of desensitization on concentration of the sensibilizing antibodies and the antigen used for reproduction of anaphylactic reaction. It was established that extent of desensitization is defined by the size of the allowing dose of antigen, concentration of the antibodies used for a sensitization and duration of contact of antigen with gdadkomyshechny body.
Bibliography: And d about A. D. Holinergiche-
sky processes in the mechanism of allergic: reactions, Usp. sovr. biol., t, 22, century 1(4), page 1, 1946; it, General allergology, M., 1978; Dale H. N of The effect of varying tonicity on the anaphylactic and other reactions of plain muscle, J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther., v. 4, p. 517, 1912—1913; Schultz W. H. Physiological studies in anaphylaxis, I. The reaction of smooth muscle of the guinea-pig sensitized with horse serum, ibid., v. 1, p.
549, 1909— 1910. A. D. Ado.