SHOWER INSTALLATIONS - the mobile technical means intended for washing of people in field conditions on distant pastures, new buildings and in other places where there are no baths. At. mount on cars, sledge, trailers separately and in a combination with a disinfection chamber. In the latter case installations are called disinfection and shower. Folding D. at. transport any transport.
By the principle of action of D. at. are subdivided on paroelevatorny and water-heating. In installations of the first type for raising of a cold water from a water source, its heating to t ° 40 — 42 ° and water injections on shower grids use steam power by means of the steam ejector (a steam elevator). In installations of the second type water delivery is made by the manual or mechanical pump, and its heating — directly in the boiler. These installations most often arrange with direct, more rare the closed current of the heated water; in the latter case D. at. it is equipped with a water-pressure tank. For an undressing, washing and clothing of people usually use tents or special vans.
At. paroelevatorny type consists of a steam boiler, the manual pump, an injector, a steam elevator, the boiler accumulator, one or two shower devices which are soaking up and pressure rubber-and-canvas hoses. The steam boiler provides steam pressure of 3 — 5 at. Initial filling of a copper with the cold water which is taken away from a water source (the river, lakes, etc.), is made the manual pump, and its subsequent replenishment — an injector (from a tank with the warmed-up water).
The boiler accumulator located behind a steam elevator (on the course of water) and being under head of water, allows to warm up in addition quickly water the ferry up to the required temperature, increases reliability of operation of the shower device, excludes burns of the washing people in case of refusal in work of an elevator (steam is condensed and does not leave through shower grids), gives the chance to use steam for boiling of water for economic needs. The water forced by an elevator is brought in the boiler accumulator from below, and taken away on shower grids from above. Below there is a crane for analysis of heated water.
The soaking-up rubber-and-canvas sleeves not less than 4 m long attached to the manual pump and a steam elevator serve for rising of water. On the end they have the reception filter (grid) protecting the pump from mechanical impurities in water. Pressure hoses serve for a supply of heated water from the boiler accumulator to shower devices. The shower device on 6 grids represents a metal frame from a pipe on four legs. Shower grids unscrew when they need to be cleared.
At. water-heating type with direct current of water consists of the boiler, the manual or mechanical pump (depending on D.'s power at.), used for water delivery, one or several shower devices, soaking up and pressure hoses. In such installation by the manual (mechanical) pump take away a cold water from a reservoir and force in the boiler where it heats up and under the pressure of continuously arriving cold water it is forced in shower grids.
Water-heating D. at. with natural circulation of water has the boiler, the pressure reservoir located above a copper and two circulation pipes connecting them. The manual pump in these installations is used for initial filling of system with water. Water circulation is caused by a difference of weight of cold and heated water. Attemperation of heated water in D. at. water-heating type make by means of the gates installed on pipes of a hot and cold water.
The greatest distribution was gained by mobile D. at. paroelevatorny type, equipped disinfection chambers (see).
Collapsible shower installation of the water-heating KSNV-3 type (fig. 1) is used in tourist and summer camps, rural-tsakh etc. Installation is prepared for work in 10 — 15 min. from the beginning of a kindling of a copper. It consists of the boiler, the filling tank of a cold water established on the earth, the pressure reservoirs of cold and hot water mounted on a framework, the manual pump for pumping of a cold water from account in a pressure reservoir, rubber-and-canvas sleeves, steel pipelines, an overflow pipe, the level gage of water, the shower device, thermometer. Capacity of D. at. 20 people an hour.
The mobile PD-4 shower caravan (fig. 2) is used for washing of the people working at construction in field conditions. The van D. at., mounted on sledge or on the special chassis towed by the tractor it is divided into four departments: the platform clothes for outerwear, razdevalnya (odevalnya), washing and boiler. In a boiler room are established: boiler, manual and centrifugal pumps, boiler accumulator. Water heats up in a steam elevator, required temperature happens in the boiler accumulator. Capacity of installation is 24 people an hour.
Bathing and shower installation of water-heating type of the WB-6A is mounted on the trailer. It is used at all seasons of the year. A source of hot water supply is the water-heating pig-iron copper. Washing department is expected on the 6th persons.
The mobile PDU-1 shower caravan (fig. 3) consists of the disinfection and shower DDA-53 installation (see. Disinfection chambers ), being the tow and a source of water and steam, and the van mounted on the two-axis trailer and used for an undressing, washing and clothing of people. Washing department is equipped with 6 shower grids. Heated water arrives on a hose from the boiler accumulator of the DDA-53 installation. Lighting in the van natural and electric, heating — steam. Capacity of PDU-1 — 24 people in hour
Operation of shower installations
D. at., the waters spending a significant amount, develop on the river bank, the lake or other source with pure water. The platform for expansion shall be rather big, with a plain dry surface and is located over the water line not higher than 4,5 m. Before installation of shower devices in washing department it is necessary to dig out flutes for a drain of water and to spread underfoot lattices, brushwood, straw, etc. Soap water from washing department is taken away in a hole at distance by not less than 10 m. For rational use of heated water under each shower grid shall wash the 2nd persons. Norm of water on one washing — 40 — 50 l at stay under a shower of 15 — 20 min. Water temperature is maintained in limits 38 — 40 ° in the summer and 40 — 42 ° in the winter.
Bibliography: Ryabov P. I. Field sanitary engineering, M., 1959, bibliogr.; Ryabov P. I. and Uzvalo to M. A. Mobile disinfection and shower caravans, M., 1970.
P. I. Ryabov.