SHMALGAUZEN Ivan Ivanovich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SHMALGAUZEN Ivan Ivanovich (1884 — 1963) is the Soviet biologist, the theorist of theory of evolution, the academician of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1935), the academician of AN of USSR (1922), zasl. scientist of USSR (1935).

In 1907 ended Kiev un-t, A. N. Severtsov's pupil. Professor Voronezh (1918 — 1920), Kiev (1921 — 1939) and the Moscow (1939 — 1948) high fur boots, in the last based and headed department of Darwinism. At the same time in 1930 — 1941 the director Ying-that zoology and biology (nowadays Ying t of zoology of

I. I. Shmalgauzen of AN of USSR), and in 1938 — 1948 the director of Institute of evolutionary morphology of A. N. Severtsov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. From 4948 g and to the last days lives the senior research associate, the head of the laboratory of embryology Zoological in-that

Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

The circle of scientific interests of I. I. Shmalgauzen was extremely wide. He was engaged in a comparative anatomy, evolutionary morphology, a problem of an origin of land vertebrata, embryology, a developmental genetics, studied quantitative patterns of growth, formoobrazovatelny processes, the theory of correlations and biological koordination, ways, factors and patterns of evolutionary process, natural selection, cybernetic mechanisms of regulation of evolutionary process. I. I. Shmal-gauzen is the author of the concept of geteronomny growth; he developed quantitative methods of the analysis of growth, showed a possibility of independent growth of separate bodies. He was one of creators of the synthetic theory of evolution (see Theory of evolution). Proved and developed the theory of the stabilizing selection playing, in particular, a large role in prenatal ontogenesis of the person. Showed and analyzed the phenomena of regulation at all levels of existence of life from cellular to biospheric, mechanisms of management of evolutionary process.

I. I. Shmalgauzen was an editor of a redotdel «Biology, zoology» of 1 prod. BME, editor-in-chief of «Magazine of the general biology» (1940 — 1948). It is awarded the Gold medal of I. I. Mechnikov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Darvinian medal of the German academy of scientists «Leo-on an ice floe».

It is awarded the order the Labour Red Banner and medals.

Works: PicT opraHi3MiB, Kshv — Harshv,

1932; The Organism as whole in individual and historical development, M. — L., 1938, M., 1982; Ways and patterns of evolutionary process, M. — L., 1939, M., 1983; Problems of Darwinism, M.,

1946, 1969; Factors of evolution. (The theory

of the stabilizing selection), M. — L., 1946, 1968; Bases of a comparative anatomy of vertebrate animals, M., 1947; Origin of land vertebrata, M., 1964; Regulation of morphogenesis in an ontogeny, M., 1964; Cybernetic questions of biology, Novosibirsk, 1968.

Bibliography: Berg R. L. The place of the theory of stabilizing I. I. Shmalgauzen's selection in modern evolutionary views, in book: Shmalgauzen I. I. Factors of evolution, page 411, M., 1968; M and-hotin A. A. and Shmalgauzen O. I. Akademik Ivan Ivanovich

Shmalgauzen and his contribution to studying of patterns of ontogenesis, Ontogenesis, t. 5, No. 3, page 222, 1974. H. N. Vorontsov.