From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SHLYOYDEN Matthias (Schleiden Matthias Jacob, 1804 — 1881) is the German biologist, the foreign corresponding member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences (1850).

In 1827 ended legal f-t Heidelberg un-that; it was improved in natural sciences and medicine. In 1839 — 1862 professor of botany in Yen, and in

1863 — 1864 professor of anthropology and vegetable chemistry of Derptsky (nowadays Tartu) un-that. Since 1864 lived in Dresden and Wiesbaden.

In 1838 M. Shleyden published the theory of phytogenesis connecting a new growth of cells with transformation of contents of a cell, and especially kernels. In his opinion, young cells arise in old by condensation of mucous substance. In the beginning in unstructured weight kernels and kernels («cyto-blasts») appear, then around them jellylike weight gathers, edges it is surrounded with a cover, creating a new cell. Cells it was and are called «small peculiar organisms» which life activity is fundamentals of both phytophysiology, and general physiology.

Despite an inaccuracy of the theory of phytogenesis, works also think of M. Shleyden as T. Shvann noted in the works, played an important role in justification by T. Shvann cellular y meop and and (see).

M. Shleyden for the first time described kernels of plant cells (see the Kernel).

M. Gpleyden possesses a number of the guides to botany and a medical pharmacognosy, the monograph about fundamentals of botany, and also several works on geography and history.

In 1904 in Yen the monument was established to M. Shleyden.

Works: Bei trage zur Phytogenesis, Arch.

Anat. Physiol, wiss. Med., S. 137, 1838; Grundzuge der wissenschaftliche Botanik. T. 1 — 2, Lpz., 1842 — 1843; Die Pflanze und ihre Leben, Lpz., 1847; Handbuch der me-dizinisch-pharmazeutischen Botanik und botanischen Pharmakognosie, T. 1 — 2, Lpz., 1852 — 1857; Das Alter des Menschengesch-lechtes, die Entstehung der Arten und die Stellung des Menschen in der Natur, Lpz., 1863; Fur Baum und Wald, Lpz., 1870.

Bibliography: Vermel E. M. Istoriya of the doctrine about a cell, page 69, M., 1970; Katsnelsoya 3. C. The cellular theory in its historical development, page 135, JI., 1963; Ritter G. Matthias-Yakov Shleyden (1804 — 1881), Natural sciences and geography, No. 2, page 25, 1905.