From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SHIP HYGIENE — the section of hygiene studying a working condition and life on vessels and developing the corresponding hygienic standards and preventive actions.

Under review This year there are conditions of accommodation of crew and passengers on the vessel, specifics of an arrangement public, sanitary and household and a dignity. - a gigabyte. rooms, and also rooms of medical, production and office prescription, rooms and the equipment of the vessels used for transportation of specialized loads, psychology and physiology of work, a working condition of ship personnel etc.

Idiosyncrasy of work of personnel of vessels is its long stay (more than 50% of time within a year) on a production object, on Krom in this regard necessary conditions for work, rest and life support shall be created.

Sea vessels are subdivided into four categories: vessels of unlimited swimming, including foreign, Arctic and Antarctic concern to the first; to the second — the vessels making flights lasting more than 24 hours; to the third — vessels, duration of flight to-rykh would make from to 24 hours, and also vessels of the technical fleet; to the fourth — the vessels making flights lasting 6 hours and less. Vessels internal (river and lake) and mixed (the river — the sea) swimmings are divided into three groups: vessels belong to the first, duration of continuous stay of crew and passengers onboard to-rykh exceeds 16 hours, to the second group — lasting up to 16 hours, to the third — to the 8th hour.

Taking into account such classification develops necessary a dignity This year. rules, norms, requirements, methodical recommendations and instructions which are obligatory for all shipbuilders and shipowners.

Rooms for crew and passengers with individual berths have above a waterline, i.e. the line of contact of a board with a water surface. Cabins, as a rule, shall be one - and double. Necessary height of ship rooms — not less than 2 m, a useful cubic capacity not less than 6 zh3 on 1 person. For vessels III and IV of categories height of 1,9 m is allowed. The area of the deck on one person is established by from 3 to 7,5 sq.m. Beds are located with the header to the diametrical plane or a nose of the vessel. About the beds located at a board the additional heat-insulating board not less than 0,45 m high is established.

On vessels of all categories there are umyvaln, bathrooms, shower or bathing rooms. Minimalnaya Square of shower section — 0,8 zh2, cabins — 1,6 sq.m, a bathroom with a shower, a wash basin and a toilet bowl — 3 sq.m (from a bathroom — 4,3 sq.m), the area of a cabin of the bathroom — 0,95 sq.m. At the rate on 8 people one toilet bowl, one wash basin, a bathtub or a shower is arranged. About toilet bowls storm hand-rail are provided. On 50 women the certain room for hygiene of women is equipped.

On domestic vessels there are rooms of medical appointment: numbering crew more than 20 people — a sanitary cabin, and more than 40 people — infirmary, the insulator, etc. Numbering more than 200 people are equipped out-patient clinic, sterilizing, operational, preoperative, x-ray, physiotherapeutic, dental surgery, gynecologic offices (more than 100 people of female personnel settle in the presence on the vessel), laboratory, a photolaboratory, men's and female hospitals, fotariya (excepting the vessels intended only for tropical flights), medical storerooms.

Idiosyncrasy of dwelling on the vessel is constant change of climatic zones and time zones. It leads to disturbance of the daily mode fiziol. functions (see. Biological rhythms ). Especially difficult climatic conditions of swimming are noted in tropics and cold regions of the World Ocean.

During the swimming in tropics solar radiation has essential value, level a cut fluctuates from 0,5 to 1,67 Gcal/cm2 here in 1 min., and averages 1,33 Gcal/cm2 in 1 min. At design of various ship systems intended for work in tropics, the settlement temperature of fresh air is accepted in 34 ° at relative humidity of 80% and temperature of outside water 30 — 32 °.

Providing comfortable conditions microclimate (see) in inhabited and household premises of courts depends first of all on the correct design of air conditioning systems (see). Year-round air conditioning shall be provided in inhabited, public, service, medical places on the vessels making swimming in districts with an outside settlement temperature over 25 °. At the high outside temperature and humidity (see) air the temperature and moist difference exerts impact on an organism at the time of an entrance and an exit of the person from the cooled cabin.

Standards of microclimatic conditions in ship rooms are regulated by «Health regulations for sea vessels of the USSR». They determined the normative temperature, humidity and speed of the movement of air in inhabited and service premises, on posts of management etc. during the summer and winter periods for different districts of swimming, and also the recommended sizes of heat drops depending on outside weather conditions are developed.

Dignity. rules for sea vessels of the USSR regulated microclimatic conditions during the winter and summer period for the ship rooms equipped with systems of heating and ventilation and also are defined during the use of air conditioning systems of size of air exchange and norm of air delivery to various ship rooms. The difference between air temperature in cabins and outside shall not exceed 15 °. When it exceeds 15 °, it is necessary to enter step thermal gradients (locking) that is reached by cooling of air in corridors, Relative humidity of air is maintained within 40 — 60%.

Laying of the main pipelines of steam through inhabited and medical rooms is not allowed. Ventilation of ship rooms shall be forced-air and exhaust with artificial or natural motivation (see. Ventilation ). On the cargo transport vessels transporting pyleobrazuyushchy or other harmful loads in system of forced artificial ventilation filters of dusting and gases are installed.

Natural ventilation shall be independent for each room on one deck without branched system in the horizontal plane. All stitched ventilating devices and exhaust openings of natural ventilation should be equipped with removable devices of protection against mosquitoes and midges. On a galley air delivery by means of artificial ventilation needs to be made to the main jobs (to a plate, finishing tables etc.) via the airdistributing devices allowing to regulate its direction and speed of the movement. During the cold period of year the air given on jobs needs to be warmed up up to the temperature not below 18 °. Openings of the exhaust ventilation on a galley it is necessary to have over sources of heat release (a plate, a copper, a frying pan etc.) and to have vertical svesa. Installation of inclined umbrellas over galley plates is forbidden. In dining rooms, restaurants the arrangement of stitched and exhaust openings shall provide uniform ventilation of all room. Forced ventilation of power departments shall be artificial. The induced air moves in a working zone on places of execution of constant watch, and also on repair platforms. In machine and boiler rooms with constant watch the air dushirovaniye of posts of management is necessary. During the summer period air is cooled to t ° 22 °, in winter — to t ° 18 — 23 °.

Rooms for crew, passengers and service premises have natural and artificial lighting, a cut shall meet standards of artificial lighting on vessels of navy. Natural lighting (see) is provided via illuminators, windows, light lamps. In auxiliary and household rooms (storerooms, corridors, bathrooms, shower and etc.) natural lighting is not obligatory. The Coefficient of Natural Illumination (CNI) in inhabited, office and the workrooms located in the case of the vessel shall be not less than 0,2. If for constructive reasons it is impossible to provide the KEO rated values, highlighting of separate zones of the room by lamps with fluorescent lamps is allowed. In these cases the KEO rated values can be reduced to 50%.

Each vessel shall be provided with water in enough. The device of uniform system of supply with sweet water is recommended, quality a cut shall meet requirements imposed to drinking to water (see). The minimum consumption rate of water on one person a day on vessels of the first category: drinking — 50 l, economic — 100; on vessels of the second category — respectively 40 and 90 l; on vessels of the third category — 30 and 40 l.

At design of new vessels, re-equipment and modernization old actions for the prevention of harmful effects of noise (see) and vibrations are provided (see). Marginal parameters of noise and vibration are established acting a dignity. norms for all types of vessels.

All crew personnel, employees of port and shipbuilding plants according to the order M3 USSR undergo annually medical re-examination in port and basin policlinics and hospitals.

Atomic vessels. Use on vessels of the nuclear power station defined development of the recent trend in This year oriented to ensuring radiation safety of crew and the environment in districts of swimming. For decrease in doses of radiative effects (see Doses of ionizing radiation) to safe levels on the vessel the uniform system of radiation safety is provided (see). It includes the complex of actions providing division of all pokhmeshcheniye of the atomic vessel into zones of the high and free security and allowing to localize all types of radiative effects within a zone of a high security. This complex provides an entrance and escaping of a zone of a high security only through sanitary inspection rooms of forced type, obligatory at the same time disguise in special clothes (see. Clothes special ), and also radiation control of service personnel (see. Radiation control). The most dangerous nuclear reactors in the radiation relation (see. nuclear reactors ), communications and systems of a contour of primary heat carrier are located in tight shields or in a protective tight container. Management of the systems and mechanisms placed in a zone of a high security generally is made remotely that allows to reduce considerably time of stay of service personnel in this zone. Considering a possibility of emergence of radioactive gases and aerosols, in a zone of a high security the autonomous system of ventilation or air conditioning with its cleaning of radioactive materials on special filters is created. For ensuring radiation safety during the carrying out repair work in a zone of a high security the individual means of protection of crew members (isolating pneumosuits, respirators, special footwear, etc.) are used. Means for collecting and temporary storage of liquid and solid radioactive waste allow to transfer them to coastal or floating constructions for deactivation or continuous storage.

Experience of long operation of atomic ice breakers demonstrates that the system of radiation safety created on them allows to service the nuclear power station without reradiations of crew and excludes environmental pollution by radioactive materials. Thus, the problem of ensuring radiation safety on atomic vessels found the successful solution in the USSR.

See also Water transport .

Bibliography: Kanep V. V., With l at c - to e r D. of Page and Sh and f r and L. M N. Adaptation of the person in extreme conditions of the environment, Riga, 1980; The Guide to hygiene of the water transport, under the editorship of E. P. Sergeyev, M., 1974; The Reference book on occupational health, under the editorship of B. D. Karpov and V. E. Kov-shilo, page 319, L., 1979; With t e N to about Yu. M. Psikhogigiyen of the seaman, L., 1981; E l p and - N e r L. I. Water supply of sea vessels, M., 1975.

Yu.M.Stenko, Yu. G. Nefedov.